The cover picture shows the frontispieces of all articles published in this Special Issue with research reports from DFG priority program 1178 “Experimental Electron Density as Key to Understanding Chemical Interactions”, highlighting the diverse range of chemistry that is covered herein. Biological processes that determine the effects of drugs consist on a certain interaction between agent and receptor. This molecular recognition is influenced by the electron density distribution. Analysis of these processes enables the rational synthesis of drugs. Electron density measurements are moreover significant for the design of advanced materials with specific features, e.g. the development of new pigments. Thus, color, stability, and durability can be tuned by modifying the electron density. Selected substance classes used in chemical synthesis, drug design and material science were analyzed and their binding and recognition processes were studied and quantified by means of electron density measurements.