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Keywords:

  • Functionally graded materials;
  • shell element;
  • drilling degrees of freedom;
  • effective elastic properties;
  • shear correction factor;
  • elastostatics of FGM beam-shell structures.

Abstract

Structures made of Functionally Graded Materials (FGMs) show a gradual variation of material properties in one, two, or three directions. In this paper, an efficient low-order shell element with six nodal degrees of freedom (including the drill rotation) is presented, supplemented with a proper method for calculating effective elastic properties. This new FGM shell element can be coupled with 3D FGM beam elements on a single node. The numerical results indicate high effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed approach.