• rearing method;
  • enrichment;
  • red-ruffed lemur;
  • black lemur;
  • cotton-top tamarin;
  • spider monkey;
  • lion-tailed macaque;
  • hamadryas baboon;
  • gorilla;
  • orang-utan


Stereotyped behavior is the uniform repetition of a motor pattern that occurs at a higher frequency than considered typical for a species when observed in a natural environment. Stereotypies may be considered atypical behavior and usually indicate that an animal's psychological welfare is at a suboptimal level. Instantaneous scans at 30-sec intervals during 20-min observation periods were conducted on eight primate species at the St. Louis Zoo to determine frequency of occurrence of stereotyped behavior. Results indicated that many biotic and abiotic factors were related to the frequency of stereotyped behavior by captive primates, although rearing method was more important than present environmental conditions. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.