• fishes;
  • winter behavior;
  • exotic species


Winter behavior of two native fishes (yellow perch, Perca flavescens, and killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus) and an exotic (goldfish, Carassius auratus) were studied in an outdoor experimental pond to quantify and link behavior to environmental conditions, and to identify interactions among the species that now co-occur in the wild. Killifish had high mortality and were not observed. However, contrary to our predictions, perch and goldfish had good overwinter survival and remained active in winter, and neither species spent most of their time in the warmest layer of the water column. Only two instances of aggression were seen: in both, goldfish charged perch. Both species were found principally in groups (schools); goldfish spent 18% of their time in multispecies groups. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.