Giant panda hair samples obtained by noninvasive methods served as a source of DNA for amplification of seven giant panda microsatellite loci utilizing the polymerase chain reaction. Thirteen giant pandas held in Chinese zoos were tested for identification of paternity. Some males listed as sires have been excluded as the biological father of captive-born giant pandas. Because of the death of some potential sires, paternity is still not assigned for some giant pandas, although there is a high likelihood that paternity assignment could be made if postmortem samples are available for genetic analysis. The DNA microsatellite variation assayed by the test we have developed provides a rapid, highly informative, and noninvasive method for paternity identification in giant pandas. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.