Subcellular localization and antiviral activity of carminic acid/poly r(A-U) combinations


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Carminic acid (CAR) enhances the antiviral activity of poly r(A-U) twelve-fold without increasing interferon induction, inactivating the vesicular stomatitis virus or inducing host cell cytotoxicity. Phase contrast photomicrographs of human foreskin fibroblasts (HSF) incubated with CAR alone, poly r(A-U) alone or with a CAR/poly r(A-U) combination illustrate that the CAR/poly r(A-U) combinations display altered subcellular distribution with the CAR being localized in the nucleoli and chromatin. Phase contrast and fluorescence photomicrographs of adriamycin (ADR)-treated and ADR/poly r(A-U)-treated HSF cells corroborate these findings. These results suggest that modulation of one or more nucleolar processes may be responsible for the enhanced antiviral activity.