A specific protein with an estimated molecular weight of 260 kDa was found to be synthesized and secreted into the incubation medium by rat uterus only during the estrus stage of the cycle. This secreted uterine protein was designated as estrus stage-specific protein (ESP). ESP was not produced by pregnant, lactating or immature pup rat uteri. Estradiol administered to ovariectomized rats induced production of ESP which was blocked by the antiestrogen, ICI 182, 780. The present results show that the synthesis and secretion of ESP is regulated by estradiol and this protein maybe involved in blastocyst implantation.