Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is a potent activator for cells of mesenchymal origin. Two different PDGF chains termed A and B encoded by different genes have been identified leading to three different PDGF isoforms, the AA and BB homodimers and the AB heterodimer. All three forms have been observed in vivo and possess biological activity in vitro with the AA homodimer being the poorest cellular mitogen. The availability of highly purified recombinant PDGF isoforms was the initial basis for comparative studies in order to specify the different spectra of activity of the various PDGF species. This review is particularly focused on the AB heterodimer as from the standpoint of heterologous gene expression, this species is the one with the highest demands concerning expression and purification protocols. This explains the fact that, in comparison to PDGF-BB, only very limited data on the in vivo application of PDGF-AB are available so far.