Immunohistochemistry was used to investigate the involvement of the actin-associated binding proteins, tropomyosin, α-actinin and gelsolin with the formation of the decidual cell reaction during early pregnancy in the rat. Tropomyosin was present in the uterine myometrium, but absent from the both decidual and non-decidual stromal cells. α-Actinin was absent from non-decidual stromal cells, but present in decidual cells. Gelsolin was present in non-decidual cells close to the uterine stroma as well as in transformed decidual cells. Both gelsolin and α-actinin were concentrated around the periphery of the cell. It is proposed that these actin-binding proteins may be involved with the cellular transformations associated with decidualization.