The gas3/PMP22 gene product is a dual function protein, involved in both peripheral nerve myelination and cell proliferation. gas 3/PMP22 is highly expressed in myelinating Schwann cells and is required for normal PNS development. In addition, a more general function for gas3 is suggested by its expression in non-neural tissues and upregulation by growth arrest in cultured rodent fibroblasts. In the present work, the expression of the gas3 gene has been studied in human fibroblasts. We have confirmed that gas3 mRNA is upregulated when cells are serum starved or grown to high cell density (G0 arrest). When quiescent cells were stimulated by serum or platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB),gas3 mRNA was down regulated. In contrast, we found that the expression of gas3 mRNA was neither upregulated in senescent cells nor in cells arrested in G1 using Lovastatin. Thus, high expression of gas3 is not related to growth inhibition in general, but more probably to the G0 growth arrest state. Furthermore, we found that in two malignant fibrous histiocytoma cell lines, gas3 expression was lower than in normal fibroblasts, suggesting an altered regulation of thegas3 gene in transformed cells.