Flow cytometry, light and epifluorescence microscopies and transmission electron microscopy were used to follow the mitochondrial kinetics during amphibian erythropoiesis. A similar behaviour in response to the induction of anaemia was observed in the diploid Bufo ictericus and the tetraploid Odontophrynus americanus. A high cellular activity was observed ten days after haemolytic anaemia induced by phenylhydrazine, based on the higher Rhodamine 123 uptake by the erythroid cells. In addition, the more intense expression of the mitochondrial enzyme cytochrome oxidase, isocitrate and succinic dehydrogenases were cytochemically detected at this stage. This suggests that erythroid cell mitochondria, at this time, could be in a more active functional state than at other stages. In both species, mitochondrial plasticity was observed during cell maturation. A progressive loss of oxidation—reduction enzyme expression seemed to follow changes at the mitochondrial cristae morphology, from transverse to longitudinal form, mainly at the 20th day of recovery from anaemia, possibly related to a natural loss of function. The presence of these mitochondrial enzymes in mitochondrion-like organelles also favours their participation in the haeme synthesis, although with a reduced expression, since this suggests the presence of a complete and active enzymatic complex in these modified organelles. This also supports the idea that all these organelles are mitochondria in distinct metabolic stages, and not mitochondrion-like organelles or haemosomes, as proposed by some authors.