• satellite cells;
  • hormones;
  • growth factors;
  • steroids;
  • cytokines;
  • resistance exercise


It is generally accepted that the primary mechanisms governing skeletal muscle hypertrophy are satellite cell activation, proliferation, and differentiation. Specific growth factors and hormones modulate satellite cell activity during normal muscle growth, but as a consequence of resistance exercise additional regulators may stimulate satellite cells to contribute to gains in myofiber size and number. Present knowledge of the regulation of the cellular, biochemical and molecular events accompanying skeletal muscle hypertrophy after resistance exercise is incomplete. We propose that resistance exercise may induce satellite cells to become responsive to cytokines from the immune system and to circulating hormones and growth factors. The purpose of this paper is to review the role of satellite cells and growth factors in skeletal muscle hypertrophy that follows resistance exercise.