THE DEVELOPMENT OF MIDWIFERY — Male and Female, Yesterday and Today


  • Robert E. Roush Ed.D.

    Corresponding author
    1. Dr. Robert E. Roush, Jr., is the director of allied health programs at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas. Dr. Roush has completed graduate and post-graduate work at Sam Houston State University, The University of Houston, The University of Southern California, and The University of Texas. As a faculty member in the Baylor Department of Community Medicine, Dr. Roush is the principal investigator for two research projects experimenting with various educational approaches designed to change the behavior of high school students and their parents regarding cardiovascular disease factors. In addition to his allied health and research interests, Dr. Roush has published papers in the fields of medical anthropology, medical education, and rehabilitation.
    • Address correspondence to: Robert E. Roush, Baylor College of Medicine, Center for Allied Health Manpower Development, Texas Medical Center, Houston, Texas 77030.

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The title of this paper reflects the historical perspective this writer has attempted to give to the development of the modern, certified nurse-midwife. The historical overview delves into antiquity and covers periods ranging from the Greek and Roman eras to the Renaissance to the 1925–55 period in the U.S. when certified nurse-midwives were first trained and used in this country. The paper mentions European midwifery today and cites several clinical studies documenting the effectiveness of certified nurse-midwives in providing high quality maternal and infant health care.