Shirley R. Fischer received her BS in Nursing from the University of Rochester and her MS in Maternal and Newborn Nursing and Nurse-Midwifery from Yale University. She is currently a staff nurse-midwife at Booth Maternity Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH THE OCCURRENCE OF PERINEAL LACERATIONS
Article first published online: 10 JAN 2011
1979 American College of Nurse Midwives
Journal of Nurse-Midwifery
Volume 24, Issue 1, pages 18–26, January-February 1979
How to Cite
Fischer, S. R. (1979), FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH THE OCCURRENCE OF PERINEAL LACERATIONS. Journal of Nurse-Midwifery, 24: 18–26. doi: 10.1016/0091-2182(79)90189-7
- Issue published online: 10 JAN 2011
- Article first published online: 10 JAN 2011
In a retrospective study of 210 women whose deliveries took place at 2 hospitals, the relationship of minor and major perineal lacerations to 30 separate factors is analyzed. Third and fourth degree perineal lacerations are found to be strongly related to low parity, low age, use of forceps, and episiotomies, and weakly related to normal pre-pregnant weight, weight gain over 30 pounds, anemia, long second stage, and epidural and pudendal anesthesia. First and second degree lacerations related to greater age, multiparity, prepregnant obesity, low weight gain, short second stage, large infant weight, and absence of anesthesia, forceps, and episiotomies. Analysis of the interactions of related variables and a comprehensive review of the literature are presented.