• Barbara J. Bills C.N.M., M.S.

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      16332 Spartan Circle, Huntington Beach California, 92649.
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    • Barbara J. Bills, C.N.M., M.S., graduated from the University of California, San Francisco, School of Nursing with a Bachelor's Degree in 1973. She also is a graduate of St. Louis University School of Nursing, with a Masters Degree in Nurse-Midwifery. She has been employed as a staff nurse in Denver, Colorado and as a nurse-midwife in St. Louis, MO. Presently, she is in a private nurse-midwifery practice in Southern California.

    • The author would like to thank Sr. Jeanne Meurer, C.N.M., M.S. and Ronald P. Karlsberg, M.D., for their encouragement and assistance.

16332 Spartan Circle, Huntington Beach California, 92649.


This research project studied the effect of planned physical contact on enhancement of paternal-newborn affectional bond formation. Fifteen fathers were subjected to prenatal and postpartum questionnaires as were fifteen fathers who had planned physical contact with their infants prior to the postpartum questionnaire. Fathers were investigated pre- and posttask with the Affectional Relationship Questionnaire (ARQ), the Personality Research Form (PRF) and the Task Sequence Questionnaire (TSQ). The ARQ identified fathers who wanted more contact with their children by choosing a rooming-in situation. Although the ARQ and PRF showed no change in the groups who were subjected to planned physical contact, the Task Sequence Questionnaire (TSQ) demonstrated unanimous agreement that physical contact expedites an acquaintance process and enhances paternal-newborn affectional bonds. All participants overwhelmingly approved early paternal-infant interactions.