Due to a worldwide epidemic of sexually transmitted diseases, oculogenital diseases have become an important health issue with respect to incidence, range of syndromes, and severity of symptoms produced. This paper addresses the problem of neonatal conjunctivitis due to Neisseria gonorrhoea and Chlamydia trachomatis. A brief historical overview, the epidemiology, and treatment of ophthalmia neonatorum are presented along with the clinical signs and controversy of present treatment regimes. The two serotypes of chlamydial ocular infections are presented: paratrachoma and hyperendemic trachoma, along with other syndromes they produce in men, women, and infants. In addition, the concept of using human milk as eye prophylaxis is discussed.