Deborah A. Yeates has a BS in nursing from Northern Illinois University and an MS in nursing sciences from the University of Illinois where she also obtained her nurse-midwifery preparation. She has worked as a staff nurse in maternity nursing and has been involved with parent education and the implementation of family centered care. She is currently practicing as a nurse-midwife at Gundersen Clinic in LaCrosse, Wisconsin.
A Comparison of Two Bearing-Down Techniques during the Second Stage of Labor
Article first published online: 6 JAN 2011
1984 American College of Nurse Midwives
Journal of Nurse-Midwifery
Volume 29, Issue 1, pages 3–11, January-February 1984
How to Cite
Yeates, D. A. and Roberts, J. E. (1984), A Comparison of Two Bearing-Down Techniques during the Second Stage of Labor. Journal of Nurse-Midwifery, 29: 3–11. doi: 10.1016/0091-2182(84)90324-0
- Issue published online: 6 JAN 2011
- Article first published online: 6 JAN 2011
This pilot study focuses on the bearing-down phenomenon of the second stage of labor, within the theoretical framework of Levine's conservation principles for nursing practice. The purpose of this study is to contrast the effects of two learned approaches to parturient participation during the second stage of labor. A control group (n = 5) was taught the traditional approach to second stage bearing-down efforts: sustained breath-holding. An experimental group (n = 5) was taught to bear-down only with the involuntary urge. No differences were found in the mean duration of the second stage, phases within second stage, Apgar scores, or maternal report of effort. Perineal integrity was preserved in the experimental group. These findings suggest that involuntary bearing-down efforts are accompanied by adequate labor progress and result in less perineal trauma. Further examination of the common practice of encouraging women to bear down strenuously during the second stage, instead of responding to their involuntary urge, is recommended.