Julius Richmond received his BSS and MD degrees from the University of Illinois. He has served on the medical school faculties of the University of Illinois, the State University of New York at Syracuse, and Harvard University. Dr. Richmond holds honorary doctorate degrees from Indiana University, Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke's Medical Center in Chicago, the University of Illinois, Georgetown University, the Medical College of Pennsylvania, and the National College of Education in Evanston, Illinois. Dr. Richmond is currently the Director of the Division of Health Policy Research and Education at Harvard University. He has served as Assistant Secretary for Health for the US Department of Health, Education and Welfare, and as Surgeon General for the US Public Health Service. Dr. Richmond has published extensively and has made significant contributions to the professional literature throughout the entire range of child development, child health, and public health issues.
Midwifery and Medicine in America
The Struggle for Justice in Infant Health
Article first published online: 6 JAN 2011
1986 American College of Nurse Midwives
Journal of Nurse-Midwifery
Volume 31, Issue 5, pages 219–223, September-October 1986
How to Cite
Richmond, J. B. and Wise, P. H. (1986), Midwifery and Medicine in America. Journal of Nurse-Midwifery, 31: 219–223. doi: 10.1016/0091-2182(86)90006-6
- Issue published online: 6 JAN 2011
- Article first published online: 6 JAN 2011
The enormous gap in infant survival between blacks and whites is one of the greatest and most long-standing tragedies confronting the United States. It is a major contributing factor to the overall infant mortality rate.
The United States ranks 17th in infant mortality, well behind a host of other nations that make widespread use of midwifery services. The problem of low birth weight is at the heart of the infant mortality problem throughout the United States. The knowledge and technology is there but a national commitment is lacking. In fact, major federal programs that subsidize prenatal and perinantal health services have recently been severely cut back.
The record clearly demonstrates that midwifery can help reduce the problem of low birth weight and infant mortality.