When Alternatives Become Mainstream


  • Judith A. Flanagan CNM, MSN

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    • Judith A. Flanagan (aka Goldschmidt) is Director of the Nurse-Midwifery Program at San Francisco General Hospital. She is a 1972 graduate of the MSN program at the Yale University School of Nursing. She has a BA in Philosophy from Reed College, and a diploma from the School of Nursing at Roosevelt Hospital in New York City. Judy's 14 years in nurse-midwifery include an internship at King's County Hospital, New York City, a homebirth practice in the early 1970s in California, and Director of the first in-hospital birth center in California at San Francisco General Hospital. She is currently an Assistant Clinical Professor at the University of California, San Francisco, and Director of Nurse-Midwifery Programs at San Francisco General Hospital.

Nurse-Midwifery Education Program, San Francisco General Hospital, San Francisco, CA 94110.


This paper is adapted from a keynote address presented at the November 1985 Consortium for Nurse-Midwifery, Inc. (CNMI) meeting in Sacramento, California. Discussed is nurse-midwifery's recent association with alternatives in childbirth. A historical overview of nurse-midwifery's role model vis-a-vis the poor, homebirth, nursing, and policy-making for maternal child health is presented. It is suggested that the challenge of the 1980s continues to be how to provide care for the disenfranchised while maintaining a caring focus