• Priscilla M. Nodine CNM, MS,

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    • Priscilla Nodine is currently a nursemidwife at the Denver Birth Center, Denver, Colorado. She received a BS degree in 1977 from Simmons College, Boston, Massachusetts, a BSN degree in 1982 from St. Louis University, and an MS degree in May 1986 from University of Colorado Health Sciences Center. She is a member of ACNM, Sigma Theta Tau, and the Childbirth and Parenting Association of Colorado.

  • Joyce Roberts CNM, PhD, FAAN

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    • Joyce Roberts is Professor and Division head of Parent-Child Nursing and Director of the Graduate Nurse-Midwifery Program at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center. She completed her MS in Maternal-Newborn Nursing and Nurse-Midwifery at the University of Utah, and her PhD at the University of Illinois, Chicago.

Priscilla M. No-dine, % Denver Birth Center, 1201 E. 17th Ave. #202, Denver, CO 80218.


This research used a retrospective, relation-searching design to examine the association between factors related to maternal condition, obstetrical practices, and perineal outcome. The sample included nurse-midwifery clients who delivered term infants in the occiput anterior position within an 18-month period (n = 275). Data were obtained from the clinical records. Chi square analysis was used to examine the association among factors. Those factors found to be significantly associated with perineal outcome during childbirth were parity, analgesia use, anesthesia use, maternal position at delivery, and infant weight. Analgesia and anesthesia use and maternal position were further analyzed, controlling for other variables. The implications of these findings to nurse-midwifery practice and the needs for future research are discussed.