Ronnie Lichtman, CNM, MS, MPhil, graduated from the Columbia University midwifery program, where she is now a faculty member. She also maintains a private practice in New York City and is coedttor of Gynecology: Well-woman Care (Appleton & Lange, 1990).
PERIMENOPAUSAL HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERAPY
Review of the Literature
Article first published online: 6 JAN 2011
1991 American College of Nurse Midwives
Journal of Nurse-Midwifery
Volume 36, Issue 1, pages 30–48, January-February 1991
How to Cite
Lichtman, R. (1991), PERIMENOPAUSAL HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERAPY. Journal of Nurse-Midwifery, 36: 30–48. doi: 10.1016/0091-2182(91)90019-L
- Issue published online: 6 JAN 2011
- Article first published online: 6 JAN 2011
Hormonal replacement therapy—usually involving estrogen with or without an added progestin—has been proposed as a treatment for a variety of changes associated with the perimenopausal years, including hot flushes, vaginal and urinary tract atrophy, sexual problems, aging skin, and a number of affective symptoms. It has also been Studied as a preventive measure against osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease, with some researchers claiming a protective effect against breast cancer, although others cite it as a risk factor for breast cancer. This article reviews the literature in each of these areas, suggesting an individualized approach to hormone replacement therapy, determined by patient and practitioner, based on symptomatology and risk factors. Alternative therapies are briefly outlined.