Kathleen J. Aderhold, CNM, MS, received her B.S. in nursing at the University of Northern Colorado, and her M.S. at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center. She is currently practicing midwifery as the coordinator of the Adolescent Pregnancy Program at Presbyterian/St. Luke's Medical Center, Denver, Colorado. Ms. Aderhold is a member of ACNM, NAACOG, and Sigma Theta Tau.
PHASES OF SECOND STAGE LABOR: Four Descriptive Case Studies
Article first published online: 24 MAY 2011
1991 American College of Nurse Midwives
Journal of Nurse-Midwifery
Volume 36, Issue 5, pages 267–275, September-October 1991
How to Cite
Aderhold, K. J. and Roberts, J. E. (1991), PHASES OF SECOND STAGE LABOR: Four Descriptive Case Studies. Journal of Nurse-Midwifery, 36: 267–275. doi: 10.1016/0091-2182(91)90041-M
- Issue published online: 24 MAY 2011
- Article first published online: 24 MAY 2011
In recent years, the second stage of labor has become an area of interest to a number of observers who have described divisions or phases with behavioral characteristics. Using a descriptive case study design, four normal nulliparous women in spontaneous second stage labor were videotaped from the occurrence of involuntary bearing-down efforts or the recognition of complete cervical dilation until birth. Analysis of these videotapes, the accompanying narrative transcripts, and uterine monitor tracings provided evidence that some behaviors changed over the progression of the second stage. These changes could be divided into three behavioral phases that the nurse/midwife can Identify in order to recognize the typical pattern of progression and possible deviations from normal.