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  • Winnie O. Willis RN, ScD,

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    • Winnie O. Willis, RN, ScD, is an associate professor in the Division of Maternal and Child Health, San Diego State University Graduate School of Public Health. She received her doctor of science degree in maternal and child health from The Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health in 1982. Her current research is in the area of pesticide exposure and pregnancy outcome, as well as African-American infant mortality.

  • Judith T. Fullerton PhD, CNM

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    • Judith T. Fullerton, PhD, CNM, is associate professor of clinical family medicine in the Department of Community and Family Medicine, University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine, and Assistant Dean. University of California, San Francisco, School of Nursing. She received her nurse-midwifery education from Columbia University and her doctorate in health education from Temple. She currently directs a program of family nurse-practice and nurse-midwifery studies and conducts research in the area of access to prenatal care for Hispanic women.

San Diego State University, 6505 Alvarado Read. Suite 205, San Diego, CA 92120.


A major health objective of the United States government and the World Health Organization is the reduction of infant mortality by the year 2000. Significant progress in the reduction of infant mortality has been made internationally simply as a consequence of general improvements in public health and nationally as a consequence of increased technological sophistication. Recently, however, there has been an attenuation in the rate of decline, and it becomes necessary to address the unsolved issues that continue to affect morbidity and mortality in the first year of life Year 2000 objectives related to infant mortality include the reduction of low birth weight and increasing access to prenatal care. Socioeconomic, behavioral, medical, and obstetric factors associated with low birth weight and lack of prenatal care are cited. Personal and political agenda targeted to the achievement of the public health goals are proposed.