• B. J. Snell CNM, PhD

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      B. J. Snell, CNM, PhD, UCI Birthing Center, 300 West Cerritos Avenue, #7, Anaheim, CA 92805.
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    • B. J. Snell, CNM, PhD, is Assistant Clinical Professor in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at the University of California, Irvine (UCI). Dr. Snell began her nursing studies at the University of Alabama in Birmingham and received her M.S. degree from the University of Colorado. She completed doctoral education from the Oregon Health Sciences University School of Nursing along with her education in nurse-midwifery. Dr. Snell served as Co-Director of the Breastfeeding Service in Portland, Oregon, which was the first service of its land in the state of Oregon. She is currently the Director of Nurse-Midwifery at the UCI Birthing Center, which is a freestanding facility. Her research interests include nurse-midwifery management of women in freestanding birthing centers, breast-feeding, and the utilization of research findings.

B. J. Snell, CNM, PhD, UCI Birthing Center, 300 West Cerritos Avenue, #7, Anaheim, CA 92805.


Intrapartum amnioinfusion is being used in a variety of clinical settings and for multiple therapeutic modalities to prevent fetal distress and improve outcomes. The procedure has demonstrated efficacy in cases of variable decelerations and thick, meconium-stained amniotic fluid. Amnioinfusion has been shown to improve maternal and neonatal outcomes by decreasing cesarean sections for fetal distress, improving cord pH, and decreasing the amount of meconium present below the cords at delivery. This article describes the pathophysiology of amniotic fluid volume disorders that indicate the use of amnioinfusion, reviews the literature regarding the indications and therapeutic effects, and describes techniques for the use of amnioinfusion. In addition, there is a discussion of the contraindications associated with the use of amnioinfusion and its use in and out of hospital settings. The technique for amnioinfusion is simple, easy, and inexpensive to initiate. It can be performed in a variety of settings, provided there is adequate equipment, personnel, and emergency services available. Certified nurse-midwives should become familiar and comfortable with the procedure in order to provide complete care for the families they serve.