PRIMARY CARE FOR WOMEN: Comprehensive Cardiovascular Assessment


  • Caron Campbell CNM, MS

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    • Caron Campbell began adulthood as an English teacher before metamorphosing into a nurse at Oregon Health Sciences University, emerging ultimately as a certified nurse-midwife with an MS at the University of Utah. Her midwifery career began with a private practice she established with another certified nurse-midwife. After several professional permutations she now enjoys fullscope midwifery and precepting student midwives at Highline Midwifery Service near Seattle.

Caron Campbell, CNM, MS, 12215 S.W. Bachelor Rd., Vashon, WA 98070-8831.


This article identifies the tools necessary for basic primary care assessment and evaluation of the cardiovascular system in women. Risk factors and abnormalities associated with cardiovascular problems are discussed. Guidelines are presented that will enable the primary care clinician to determine normal cardiovascular function in women, identify risk factors that indicate the need for preventive care, and discover abnormalities that may require referral and intervention.