The assessment of cultural competence in providing primary care services (or women is addressed Emphasis is placed on the ways in which cultural competency attainment can ensure the availability of key primary care components to all women, especially those from certain vulnerable populations and those who have specific primary health care needs, A cultural competence continuum is described that will assist providers in an assessment of their own cultural competency levels, as well as those of the service settings in which they practice. Six scenarios are provided, describing experiences at each level of the continuum that may hinder the development and delivery of effective primary care service interventions. Examples of ways in which nurse-midwives can provide leadership in the area of cultural competence in women's primary care are also included.