Currently, one of every 13 U.S. residents is foreign born. A 1991 survey of certified nurse-midwives (CNMs) indicated that 51% of the respondents serve immigrant women. Using a case study approach, this article illustrates barriers to health care experienced by foreign-born women and demonstrates how cultural competence increases provider effectiveness in meeting the unique needs of this population. Effective primary care requires understanding the context of the refugee experience and its physical and emotional sequelae; addressing geographic, linguistic, economic, and cultural barriers; and providing high-quality care through the efficient use of resources without unduly controlling women's choices. Providing care within the context of the traditional family structure, gender roles, family support systems, and community services and resources further enhances health care services. Equally important is the establishment of a sustained partnership with clients, based on the support of protective traditional health practices and the recognition that a woman is expert in her own health. By respecting the complex cultural, political, economic, and personal backgrounds that contribute to immigrant women's perceptions of health, illness, and health care needs, culturally competent primary care providers serve diverse populations more effectively and help to enrich the communities in which they live and work.