Get access

MIDWIFERY MANAGEMENT OF PAIN IN LABOR: The CNM Data Group, 1996

Authors

  • Leah Albers CNM, DrPH, FACNM

    Corresponding author
      Address correspondence to Leah Albers, CNM, DrPH, FACNM, University of New Mexico College of Nursing, Albuquerque, NM 87131–1061.
    Search for more papers by this author

Address correspondence to Leah Albers, CNM, DrPH, FACNM, University of New Mexico College of Nursing, Albuquerque, NM 87131–1061.

ABSTRACT

Joint data collection by nine nurse-midwifery practices in the United States permitted a description of pain management practices with intrapartum patients. Observational data are reported for healthy gravidas at term (N = 4,171). A wide variety of techniques for pain management, including both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic methods, were used. High prevalence modalities were paced breathing (used by 55.2% of this clinical sample), activity and position change (42.4%), narcotics (30.0%), and epidurals (18.7%). Paced breathing plus narcotics was the most common combination. Variations are reported for subgroups of women according to age, parity, race/ethnicity, education, insurance, marital status, activity in labor, and type of delivery. The only methods associated with a lowered rate of spontaneous delivery were epidurals and intrathecal narcotics.

Get access to the full text of this article

Ancillary