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PRIMARY AND SECONDARY PREVENTION STRATEGIES AMONG OLDER POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

Authors

  • Colleen Keller RN, PhD,

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      1School of Nursing, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78284.
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    • Colleen Keller received a BSN from Arizona State University, an MSN from Ohio State University, and a PhD from the University of New Mexico. She is currently professor in the Department of Family Health Care Nursing at the University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio. She is certified as a family nurse practitioner by the American Nurses Association.

  • Judith Fullerton CNM, PhD, FACNM,

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    • Judith T. Fullerton received a BSN from Wayne State University, an MS and certificate in nurse-midwifery from Columbia University, and a PhD in Health Education from Temple University. She is currently professor in the Department of Family Health Care Nursing at the University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio. She is a Fellow of the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  • Julie Fleury RN, PhD

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    • Julie Fleury received a BSN from Northern Arizona University and MSN and PhD degrees from the University of Arizona. She is currently an associate professor in the Department of Adult and Geriatric Nursing at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.


1School of Nursing, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78284.

ABSTRACT

Women may choose to initiate, reinitiate, or discontinue hormone replacement therapy (HRT) at any time beyond the perimenopausal period. HRT, exercise, and nutrition are reviewed in terms of their potential benefits as primary and secondary preventive therapies against coronary heart disease, osteoporosis, breast and genital cancers, and the maintenance of cognitive function among older postmenopausal women. Lifestyle alternatives involving nutrition and exercise that offer many of the same benefits as HRT are discussed. Since both pharmacologic and lifestyle interventions offer significant benefit for primary and secondary prevention of disease and disability, each should be offered to women for consideration as they enter the perimenopausal period. Additionally, each can be recommended for initiation even at much older ages and subsequent to adverse health occurrences, such as the experience of breast or genital cancer or a cardiac event. Each should be sustained over the long term. The decision whether to discontinue these interventions among the most elderly will be influenced by other quality of life considerations. © 1998 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

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