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PRACTICES: Part 2: Factors Affecting Use


  • Lisa Hanson CNM, DNSc

    1. Lisa Hanson received her bachelor's degree in nursing from the University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee and her nurse-midwifery education and DNSc from Rush University, Chicago. Dr. Hanson is an assistant professor at Marquette University College of Nursing and a faculty member of the Nurse-Midwifery Program. In 1987, she co-founded the Nurse-Midwifery Center, a service affiliated with University of Wisconsin-Madison Medical School, Milwaukee Clinical Campus at Sinai Samaritan Medical Center. She continues in a full scope faculty practice there.
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  • CNMs/CMs and midwives as used herein refer to those midwifery practitioners who are certified by the American College of Nurse-Midwives (ACNM) or the ACNM Certification Council, Inc.; midwifery refers to the profession as practiced in accordance with the standards promulgated by the ACNM.

Marquette University College of Nursing, Nurse-Midwifery Program, Clark Hall 363, PO Box 1881, Milwaukee, WI 53201–1881


This, the second of a two-part article, describes the findings of a national survey of practicing certified nurse-midwives (CNMs) regarding factors that affect the use of eight second-stage maternal positions. Lower CNM self-reported autonomy scores were associated with the use of the lithotomy and dorsal supine positions; maternal preference and higher CNM self-reported autonomy scores were associated with the use of the nonlithotomy positions. The use of nonlithotomy positions is one nontechnologic way to enhance the normal process of birth.