Applications to Women's Reproductive Health Care


  • Margaret W. Beal CNM, PhD

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    • Margaret W. Beal is an associate professor in the Nurse-Midwifery and Graduate Entry in Nursing Programs at Yale University School of Nursing. She received her MSN and nurse-midwifery education at Yale School of Nursing, and a PhD in Nursing Science at the Union Institute. Her current research is on the use of acupuncture for symptom relief in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease.

Yale University School of Nursing, 100 Church Street South, New Haven, CT 06536–0747.


An introduction to the therapeutic applications, history, and theory of acupuncture and acupressure is presented. The traditional concepts that underlie treatment of imbalances of ch'i, or vital energy, are presented, along with the theories of yin and yang, meridians, vital substances, pathogenic factors, five phases, and the eight principle patterns. Contemporary Western research findings on the biochemical mediaries and effects of acupuncture are reviewed. Clinical applications to women's reproductive care that are presented include treatment for dysmenorrhea, infertility, and childbearing. Data on clinical trials are reviewed, and licensure and educational preparation for practice of these modalities are discussed.