The objective of this study was to identify the characteristics of physicians practicing obstetrics in the province of Quebec, Canada and relate these to their opinions about midwifery practice. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to a systematic random sample of 844 physicians; 597 physicians answered (response rate = 71%). Results show that physicians who were more open to midwives had a more client-centered approach to maternity care. They had attended premed school outside Canada but received their specialty training in Canada. They also had often collaborated with midwives since they had begun practicing. Physicians who were more open to midwives were less demanding in terms of level of midwife training. They agreed that midwives should be self-regulating. It is concluded that greater knowledge of midwives' practice, gained through collaboration in the workplace and interdisciplinary education, could help physicians to better understand the significant contributions that midwives can make to the health care system. J Nurse Midwifery 1999;44:399–407 © 1999 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.