• [1]
    Mergeay, M., Houba, C., Gerits, J. (1978) Extrachromosomal inheritance controlling resistance to cadmium, cobalt, copper and zinc ions: evidence from curing in a Pseudomonas [proceedings]. Arch. Int. Physiol. Biochem. 86, 440442.
  • [2]
    Mergeay, M., Nies, D., Schlegel, H.G., Gerits, J., Charles, P., Van Gijsegem, F. (1985) Alcaligenes eutrophus CH34 is a facultative chemolithotroph with plasmid-bound resistance to heavy metals. J. Bacteriol. 162, 328334.
  • [3]
    Goris, J., de Vos, P., Coenye, T., Hoste, B., Janssens, D., Brim, H., Diels, L., Mergeay, M., Kersters, K., Vandamme, P. (2001) Classification of metal-resistant bacteria from industrial biotopes as Ralstonia campinensis sp. nov., Ralstonia metallidurans sp. nov. and Ralstonia basilensis Steinle et al., 1998 emend. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 51, 17731782.
  • [4]
    Nies, D., Mergeay, M., Friedrich, B., Schlegel, H.G. (1987) Cloning of plasmid genes encoding resistance to cadmium, zinc, and cobalt in Alcaligenes eutrophus CH34. J. Bacteriol. 169, 48654868.
  • [5]
    Schmidt, T., Schlegel, H.G. (1994) Combined nickel-cobalt-cadmium resistance encoded by the ncc locus of Alcaligenes xylosoxidans 31A. J. Bacteriol. 176, 70457054.
  • [6]
    Liesegang, H., Lemke, K., Siddiqui, R.A., Schlegel, H.G. (1993) Characterization of the inducible nickel and cobalt resistance determinant cnr from pMOL28 of Alcaligenes eutrophus CH34. J. Bacteriol. 175, 767778.
  • [7]
    Mergeay, M., Gerits, J., Houba, C. (1978) [Transmissible resistance factor to cobalt in Pseumononas hydrogenomonas]. C.R. Séances Soc. Biol. Fil. 172, 575579.
  • [8]
    Friedrich, B., Hogrefe, C., Schlegel, H.G. (1981) Naturally occurring genetic transfer of hydrogen-oxidizing ability between strains of Alcaligenes eutrophus. J. Bacteriol. 147, 198205.
  • [9]
    Gerstenberg, C., Friedrich, B., Schlegel, H.G. (1982) Physical evidence for plasmids in autotrophic, especially hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria. Arch. Microbiol. 133, 9096.
  • [10]
    Lejeune, P., Mergeay, M., Van Gijsegem, F., Faelen, M., Gerits, J., Toussaint, A. (1983) Chromosome transfer and R-prime plasmid formation mediated by plasmid pULB113 (RP4::mini-Mu) in Alcaligenes eutrophus CH34 and Pseudomonas fluorescens 6.2. J. Bacteriol. 155, 10151026.
  • [11]
    Diels, L., Mergeay, M. (1990) DNA probe-mediated detection of resistant bacteria from soils highly polluted by heavy metals. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56, 14851491.
  • [12]
    Brim, H., Heyndrickx, M., de Vos, P., Wilmotte, A., Springael, D., Schlegel, H.G., Mergeay, M. (1999) Amplified rDNA restriction analysis and further genotypic characterisation of metal-resistant soil bacteria and related facultative hydrogenotrophs. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 22, 258268.
  • [13]
    Yabuuchi, E., Kosako, Y., Yano, I., Hotta, H., Nishiuchi, Y. (1995) Transfer of two Burkholderia and an Alcaligenes species to Ralstonia gen. nov. Proposal of Ralstonia pickettii (Ralston, Palleroni and Doudoroff 1973) comb. nov., Ralstonia solanacearum (Smith 1896) comb. nov. and Ralstonia eutropha (Davis 1969) comb. nov. Microbiol. Immunol. 39, 897904.
  • [14]
    Taghavi, S., Mergeay, M., van der Lelie, D. (1997) Genetic and physical maps of the Alcaligenes eutrophus CH34 megaplasmid pMOL28 and its derivative pMOL50 obtained after temperature-induced mutagenesis and mortality. Plasmid 37, 2234.
  • [15]
    Diels, L., Faelen, M., Mergeay, M., Nies, D. (1985) Mercury transposons from plasmids governing multiple resistance to heavy metals in Alcaligenes eutrophus CH34. Arch. Int. Physiol. Biochem. 93, 2728.
  • [16]
    Sadouk, A., Mergeay, M. (1993) Chromosome mapping in Alcaligenes eutrophus CH34. Mol. Gen. Genet. 240, 181187.
  • [17]
    Mergeay, M. (2000) Bacteria adapted to industrial biotopes: the metal resistant Ralstonia. In: Bacterial Stress Responses (Hengge-Aronis, R. and Storz, G., Ed.), pp. 403–414. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
  • [18]
    Nies, D.H., Silver, S. (1989) Metal ion uptake by a plasmid-free metal-sensitive Alcaligenes eutrophus strain. J. Bacteriol. 171, 40734075.
  • [19]
    Nies, D.H. (1992) CzcR and CzcD, gene products affecting regulation of resistance to cobalt, zinc, and cadmium (czc system) in Alcaligenes eutrophus. J. Bacteriol. 174, 81028110.
  • [20]
    Nies, D.H., Nies, A., Chu, L., Silver, S. (1989) Expression and nucleotide sequence of a plasmid-determined divalent cation efflux system from Alcaligenes eutrophus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86, 73517355.
  • [21]
    Nies, D.H. (1995) The cobalt, zinc, and cadmium efflux system CzcABC from Alcaligenes eutrophus functions as a cation-proton antiporter in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 177, 27072712.
  • [22]
    Sensfuss, C., Schlegel, H.G. (1988) Plasmid pMOL28-encoded resistance to nickel is due to specific efflux. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 55, 295298.
  • [23]
    Siddiqui, R.A., Schlegel, H.G., Meyer, M. (1988) Inducible and constitutive expression of pMOL28-encoded nickel resistance in Alcaligenes eutrophus N9A. J. Bacteriol. 170, 41884793.
  • [24]
    Siddiqui, R.A., Benthin, K., Schlegel, H.G. (1989) Cloning of pMOL28-encoded nickel resistance genes and expression of the genes in Alcaligenes eutrophus and Pseudomonas spp. J. Bacteriol. 171, 50715078.
  • [25]
    Nies, A., Nies, D.H., Silver, S. (1989) Cloning and expression of plasmid genes encoding resistances to chromate and cobalt in Alcaligenes eutrophus. J. Bacteriol. 171, 50655070.
  • [26]
    Nies, A., Nies, D.H., Silver, S. (1990) Nucleotide sequence and expression of a plasmid-encoded chromate resistance determinant from Alcaligenes eutrophus. J. Biol. Chem. 265, 56485653.
  • [27]
    Stoppel, R.D., Schlegel, H.G. (1995) Nickel-resistant bacteria from anthropogenically nickel-polluted and naturally nickel-percolated ecosystems. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61, 22762285.
  • [28]
    Margesin, R., Schinner, F. (1997) Heavy metal resistant Arthrobacter sp. – a tool for studying conjugational plasmid transfer between gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. J. Basic Microbiol. 37, 217227.
  • [29]
    Borremans, B., Hobman, J.L., Provoost, A., Brown, N.L., van der Lelie, D. (2001) Cloning and functional analysis of the pbr lead resistance determinant of Ralstonia metallidurans CH34. J. Bacteriol. 183, 551568.
  • [30]
    Vallaeys, T., Benotmane, A., Noël-Georis, I., Borremans, B., Monchy, S., Wattiez, R., Mergeay, M., Taghavi, S. and van der Lelie, D. The organisation of plasmid-borne genes for resistance to copper and of their chromosomal counterparts in Ralstonia metallidurans. (in preparation).
  • [31]
    Rensing, C., Pribyl, T., Nies, D.H. (1997) New functions for the three subunits of the CzcCBA cation-proton antiporter. J. Bacteriol. 179, 68716879.
  • [32]
    van der Lelie, D., Schwuchow, T., Schwidetzky, U., Wuertz, S., Baeyens, W., Mergeay, M., Nies, D.H. (1997) Two-component regulatory system involved in transcriptional control of heavy-metal homoeostasis in Alcaligenes eutrophus. Mol. Microbiol. 23, 493503.
  • [33]
    Grosse, C., Grass, G., Anton, A., Franke, S., Santos, A.N., Lawley, B., Brown, N.L., Nies, D.H. (1999) Transcriptional organization of the czc heavy-metal homeostasis determinant from Alcaligenes eutrophus. J. Bacteriol. 181, 23852393.
  • [34]
    Tibazarwa, C., Wuertz, S., Mergeay, M., Wyns, L., van der Lelie, D. (2000) Regulation of the cnr cobalt and nickel resistance determinant of Ralstonia eutropha (Alcaligenes eutrophus) CH34. J. Bacteriol. 182, 13991409.
  • [35]
    Grass, G., Grosse, C., Nies, D.H. (2000) Regulation of the cnr cobalt and nickel resistance determinant from Ralstonia sp. strain CH34. J. Bacteriol. 182, 13901398.
  • [36]
    Juhnke, S., Peitzsch, N., Hübener, N., Grosse, C., Nies, D. (2002) New genes involved in chromate resistance in Ralstonia metallidurans strain CH34. Arch. Microbiol. 179, 1525.
  • [37]
    Grass, G., Fan, B., Rosen, B.P., Lemke, K., Schlegel, H.G., Rensing, C. (2001) NreB from Achromobacter xylosoxidans 31A is a nickel-induced transporter conferring nickel resistance. J. Bacteriol. 183, 28032807.
  • [38]
    Stoppel, R.D., Meyer, M., Schlegel, H.G. (1995) The nickel resistance determinant cloned from the enterobacterium Klebsiella oxytoca: conjugational transfer, expression, regulation and DNA homologies to various nickel-resistant bacteria. Biometals 8, 7079.
  • [39]
    Gilis, A., Khan, M.A., Cornelis, P., Meyer, J.M., Mergeay, M., van der Lelie, D. (1996) Siderophore-mediated iron uptake in Alcaligenes eutrophus CH34 and identification of aleB encoding the ferric iron-alcaligin E receptor. J. Bacteriol. 178, 54995507.
  • [40]
    Gilis, A., Corbisier, P., Baeyens, W., Taghavi, S., Mergeay, M., van der Lelie, D. (1998) Effect of the siderophore alcaligin E on the bioavailability of Cd to Alcaligenes eutrophus CH34. J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 20, 6168.
  • [41]
    Roux, M., Sarret, G., Pignot-Paintrand, I., Fontecave, M., Coves, J. (2001) Mobilization of selenite by Ralstonia metallidurans CH34. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67, 769773.
  • [42]
    Roux, M., Coves, J. (2002) The iron-containing superoxide dismutase of Ralstonia metallidurans CH34. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 210, 129133.
  • [43]
    Melchior, F., Ledrich, M.L., Foucaud, L., Falla, J.A. (2001) Rapid identification of Ralstonia eutropha strain CH34 using monoclonal antibodies. Hybrid Hybridomics 20, 325332.
  • [44]
    Garg, R.P., Yindeeyoungyeon, W., Gilis, A., Denny, T.P., van der Lelie, D., Schell, M.A. (2000) Evidence that Ralstonia eutropha (Alcaligenes eutrophus) contains a functional homologue of the Ralstonia solanacearum Phc cell density sensing system. Mol. Microbiol. 38, 359367.
  • [45]
    de Mot, R., Parret, A.H. (2002) A novel class of self-sufficient cytochrome P450 monooxygenases in prokaryotes. Trends Microbiol. 10, 502508.
  • [46]
    Top, E., Mergeay, M., Springael, D., Verstraete, W. (1990) Gene escape model: transfer of heavy metal resistance genes from Escherichia coli to Alcaligenes eutrophus on agar plates and in soil samples. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56, 24712479.
  • [47]
    Top, E.M., de Rore, H., Collard, J.-M., Gellens, V., Slobodkina, G., Verstraete, W., Mergeay, M. (1995) Retromobilization of heavy metal resistance genes in unpolluted and heavy metal polluted soil. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 18, 191203.
  • [48]
    Weekers, F., Jacques, P.H., Springael, D., Mergeay, M., Diels, L., Thonart, P.H. (1998) Effect of drying on bioremediation bacteria properties. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 70–72, 311322.
  • [49]
    Weekers, F., Rodriguez, C., Jacques, P., Mergeay, M., Thonart, P. (2001) Dissemination of catabolic plasmids among desiccation-tolerant bacteria in soil microcosms. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 91–93, 219232.
  • [50]
    Diels, L., Springael, D., van der Lelie, N., Top, E., Mergeay, M. (1993) Use of DNA probes and plasmid capture in a search for new interesting environmental genes. Sci. Total Environ. 139–140, 471478.
  • [51]
    Bossier, P., Top, E.M., Huys, G., Kersters, K., Boonaert, C.J., Rouxhet, P.G., Verstraete, W. (2000) Modification of the aggregation behaviour of the environmental Ralstonia eutropha-like strain AE815 is reflected by both surface hydrophobicity and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) patterns. Environ. Microbiol. 2, 5158.
  • [52]
    Diels, L., Dong, Q., van der Lelie, D., Baeyens, W., Mergeay, M. (1995) The czc operon of Alcaligenes eutrophus CH34: from resistance mechanism to the removal of heavy metals. J. Ind. Microbiol. 14, 142153.
  • [53]
    Corbisier, P. (1997) Bacterial metal-lux biosensors for a rapid determination of the heavy metal bioavailability and toxicity in solid samples. Res. Microbiol. 148, 534536.
  • [54]
    Corbisier, P., van der Lelie, D., Borremans, B., Provoost, A., de Lorenzo, V., Brown, N.L., Lloyd, J.R., Hobman, J.L., Csoregi, E., Johansson, G., Mattiasson, B. (1999) Whole cell- and protein-based biosensors for the detection of bioavailable heavy metals in environmental samples. Anal. Chim. Acta 387, 235244.
  • [55]
    Peitzsch, N., Eberz, G., Nies, D.H. (1998) Alcaligenes eutrophus as a bacterial chromate sensor. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64, 453458.
  • [56]
    Tibazarwa, C., Corbisier, P., Mench, M., Bossus, A., Solda, P., Mergeay, M., Wyns, L., van der Lelie, D. (2001) A microbial biosensor to predict bioavailable nickel in soil and its transfer to plants. Environ. Pollut. 113, 1926.
  • [57]
    van der Lelie, D., Corbisier, P., Baeyens, W., Wuertz, S., Diels, L., Mergeay, M. (1994) The use of biosensors for environmental monitoring. Res. Microbiol. 145, 6774.
  • [58]
    Heijerick, D.G., Janssen, C.R., Karlen, C., Wallinder, I.O., Leygraf, C. (2002) Bioavailability of zinc in runoff water from roofing materials. Chemosphere 47, 10731080.
  • [59]
    Diels, L., Van Roy, S., Somers, K., Willems, I., Doyen, W., Mergeay, M., Springael, D., Leysen, R. (1995) The use of bacteria immobilized in tubular membrane reactors for heavy metal recovery and degradation of chlorinated aromatics. J. Membr. Sci. 100, 249258.
  • [60]
    Diels, L., de Smet, M., Hooyberghs, L., Corbisier, P. (1999) Heavy metals bioremediation of soil. Mol. Biotechnol. 12, 149158.
  • [61]
    Dong, Q., Springael, D., Schoeters, J., Nuyts, G., Mergeay, M., Diels, L. (1998) Horizontal transfer of bacterial heavy metal resistance genes and its applications in activated sludge systems. Water Sci. Technol. 37, 465468.
  • [62]
    Lodewyckx, C., Taghavi, S., Mergeay, M., Vangronsveld, J., Clijsters, H., van der Lelie, D. (2001) The effect of recombinant heavy metal resistant endophytic bacteria in heavy metal uptake by their host plant. Int. J. Phytoremediat. 3, 173187.
  • [63]
    Valls, M., Atrian, S., de Lorenzo, V., Fernandez, L.A. (2000) Engineering a mouse metallothionein on the cell surface of Ralstonia eutropha CH34 for immobilization of heavy metals in soil. Nat. Biotechnol. 18, 661665.
  • [64]
    Valls, M., de Lorenzo, V. (2002) Exploiting the genetic and biochemical capacities of bacteria for the remediation of heavy metal pollution. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 26, 327338.
  • [65]
    Springael, D., Van Thor, J., Goorissen, H., Ryngaert, A., de Baere, R., Van Hauwe, P., Commandeur, L.C., Parsons, J.R., de Wachter, R., Mergeay, M. (1996) RP4::Mu3A-mediated in vivo cloning and transfer of a chlorobiphenyl catabolic pathway. Microbiology 142, 32833293.
  • [66]
    Taghavi, S., van der Lelie, D., Mergeay, M. (1994) Electroporation of Alcaligenes eutrophus with (mega) plasmids and genomic DNA fragments. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60, 35853591.
  • [67]
    Springael, D., Diels, L., Hooyberghs, L., Kreps, S., Mergeay, M. (1993) Construction and characterization of heavy metal-resistant haloaromatic-degrading Alcaligenes eutrophus strains. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59, 334339.
  • [68]
    Springael, D., Diels, L., Mergeay, M. (1994) Transfer and expression of PCB-degradative genes into heavy metal resistant Alcaligenes eutrophus strains. Biodegradation 5, 343357.
  • [69]
    Mergeay, M., Lejeune, P., Sadouk, A., Gerits, J., Fabry, L. (1987) Shuttle transfer (or retrotransfer) of chromosomal markers mediated by plasmid pULB113. Mol. Gen. Genet. 209, 6170.
  • [70]
    Szpirer, C., Top, E., Couturier, M., Mergeay, M. (1999) Retrotransfer or gene capture: a feature of conjugative plasmids, with ecological and evolutionary significance. Microbiology 145, 33213329.
  • [71]
    Dong, Q., Sadouk, A., van der Lelie, D., Taghavi, S., Ferhat, A., Nuyten, J.M., Borremans, B., Mergeay, M., Toussaint, A. (1992) Cloning and sequencing of IS1086, an Alcaligenes eutrophus insertion element related to IS30 and IS4351. J. Bacteriol. 174, 81338138.
  • [72]
    Collard, J.M., Provoost, A., Taghavi, S., Mergeay, M. (1993) A new type of Alcaligenes eutrophus CH34 zinc resistance generated by mutations affecting regulation of the cnr cobalt-nickel resistance system. J. Bacteriol. 175, 779784.
  • [73]
    Mergeay, M. (1991) Towards an understanding of the genetics of bacterial metal resistance. Trends Biotechnol. 9, 1724.
  • [74]
    Collard, J.M., Corbisier, P., Diels, L., Dong, Q., Jeanthon, C., Mergeay, M., Taghavi, S., van der Lelie, D., Wilmotte, A., Wuertz, S. (1994) Plasmids for heavy metal resistance in Alcaligenes eutrophus CH34: mechanisms and applications. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 14, 405414.
  • [75]
    Taghavi, S., Mergeay, M., Nies, D., van der Lelie, D. (1997) Alcaligenes eutrophus as a model system for bacterial interactions with heavy metals in the environment. Res. Microbiol. 148, 536551.
  • [76]
    Nies, D.H. (1999) Microbial heavy-metal resistance. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 51, 730750.
  • [77]
    Nies, D.H. (2000) Heavy metal-resistant bacteria as extremophiles: molecular physiology and biotechnological use of Ralstonia sp. CH34. Extremophiles 4, 7782.
  • [78]
    Nies, D.H. (1992) Resistance to cadmium, cobalt, zinc, and nickel in microbes. Plasmid 27, 1728.
  • [79]
    Nies, D.H., Silver, S. (1995) Ion efflux systems involved in bacterial metal resistances. J. Ind. Microbiol. 14, 186199.
  • [80]
    Silver, S. (1996) Bacterial resistances to toxic metal ions – a review. Gene 179, 919.
  • [81]
    Silver, S., Phung, L.T. (1996) Bacterial heavy metal resistance: new surprises. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 50, 753789.
  • [82]
    Silver, S. (1998) Genes for all metals – a bacterial view of the periodic table. The 1996 Thom Award Lecture. J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 20, 112.
  • [83]
    Mergeay, M. (1995) Heavy metal resistances in microbial ecosystems. In: Molecular Microbial Ecology Manual, pp. 1–17. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht.
  • [84]
    Nies, D. (2003) Efflux-mediated heavy metal resistance in prokaryotes. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 27, 313339.
  • [85]
    Paulsen, I.T., Saier, M.H.Jr. (1997) A novel family of ubiquitous heavy metal ion transport proteins. J. Membr. Biol. 156, 99103.
  • [86]
    Tseng, T.T., Gratwick, K.S., Kollman, J., Park, D., Nies, D.H., Goffeau, A. M.H. Saier Jr. (1999) The RND permease superfamily: an ancient, ubiquitous and diverse family that includes human disease and development proteins. J. Mol. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 1, 107125.
  • [87]
    Vandamme, P., Goris, J., Coenye, T., Hoste, B., Janssens, D., Kersters, K., de Vos, P., Falsen, E. (1999) Assignment of Centers for Disease Control group IVc-2 to the genus Ralstonia as Ralstonia paucula sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 49, 663669.
  • [88]
    Salanoubat, M., Genin, S., Artiguenave, F., Gouzy, J., Mangenot, S., Arlat, M., Billault, A., Brottier, P., Camus, J.C., Chandler, M., Choisne, N., Claudel-Renard, S., Cumac, S., Demange, N., Gaspin, C., Lavie, M., Noisan, A., Robert, C., Saurin, W., Schiex, T., Siguier, P., Thebault, P., Whalen, M., Wincher, P., Levy, M., Weisenbach, J., Boucher, C.A. (2002) Genome sequence of the plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum. Nature 415, 497502.
  • [89]
    Chen, W.M., Laevens, S., Lee, T.M., Coenye, T., de Vos, P., Mergeay, M., Vandamme, P. (2001) Ralstonia taiwanensis sp. nov., isolated from root nodules of Mimosa species and sputum of a cystic fibrosis patient. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 51, 17291735.
  • [90]
    Schwartz, E., Friedrich, B. (2001) A physical map of the megaplasmid pHG1, one of three genomic replicons in Ralstonia eutropha H16. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 201, 213219.
  • [91]
    Dong, Q., Mergeay, M. (1994) Czc/Cnr efflux: a three-component chemiosmotic antiport pathway with a 12-transmembrane-helix protein. Mol. Microbiol. 14, 185187.
  • [92]
    Springael, D., Kreps, S., Mergeay, M. (1993) Identification of a catabolic transposon, Tn4371, carrying biphenyl and 4-chlorobiphenyl degradation genes in Alcaligenes eutrophus A5. J. Bacteriol. 175, 16741681.
  • [93]
    Merlin, C., Springael, D., Mergeay, M., Toussaint, A. (1997) Organisation of the bph gene cluster of transposon Tn4371, encoding enzymes for the degradation of biphenyl and 4-chlorobiphenyl compounds. Mol. Gen. Genet. 253, 499506.
  • [94]
    Toussaint, A., Merlin, C., Monchy, S., Benotmane, M., Leplae, R., Coulson, A., Mergeay, M. and Springael, D. (2003) The biphenyl catabolic transposon Tn4371, a member of a new family of genomic islands related to IncP and Ti plasmids. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (accepted).
  • [95]
    Rensing, C., Grass, G. (2003) Escherichia coli mechanisms of copper homoeostasis in a changing environment. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 27, 197213.
  • [96]
    Gupta, A., Matsui, K., Lo, J.F., Silver, S. (1999) Molecular basis for resistance to silver cations in Salmonella. Nat. Med. 5, 183188.
  • [97]
    Scarborough, G.A. (1999) Structure and function of the P-type ATPases. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 11, 517522.
  • [98]
    Rensing, C., Ghosh, M., Rosen, B.P. (1999) Families of soft-metal-ion-transporting ATPases. J. Bacteriol. 181, 58915897.
  • [99]
    Palmgren, M.G., Axelsen, K.B. (1998) Evolution of P-type ATPases. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1365, 3745.
  • [100]
    Solioz, M.A.V.C. (1996) CPx-type ATPases: a class of P-type ATPases that pump heavy metals. Trends Biochem. Sci. 21, 237241.
  • [101]
    Rensing, C., Mitra, B., Rosen, B.P. (1998) A Zn(II)-translocating P-type ATPase from Proteus mirabilis. Biochem. Cell Biol. 76, 787790.
  • [102]
    Rensing, C., Sun, Y., Mitra, B., Rosen, B.P. (1998) Pb(II)-translocating P-type ATPases. J. Biol. Chem. 273, 3261432617.
  • [103]
    Rensing, C., Fan, B., Sharma, R., Mitra, B., Rosen, B.P. (2000) CopA: An Escherichia coli Cu(I)-translocating P-type ATPase. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 652656.
  • [104]
    Larbig, K.D., Christmann, A., Johann, A., Klockgether, J., Hartsch, T., Merkl, R., Wiehlmann, L., Fritz, H-J., Tuemmler, B. (2002) Gene islands integrated into tRNAGly genes confer genome diversity on a Pseudomonas aeruginosa clone. J. Bacteriol. 184, 66656680.
  • [105]
    Odermatt, A., Suter, H., Krapf, R., Solioz, M. (1993) Primary structure of two P-type ATPases involved in copper homeostasis in Enterococcus hirae. J. Biol. Chem. 268, 1277512779.
  • [106]
    Solioz, M., Odermatt, A. (1995) Copper and silver transport by CopB-ATPase in membrane vesicles of Enterococcus hirae. J. Biol. Chem. 270, 92179221.
  • [107]
    Lee, S.M., Grass, G., Rensing, C., Barrett, S.R., Yates, C.J., Stoyanov, J.V., Brown, N.L. (2002) The Pco proteins are involved in periplasmic copper handling in Escherichia coli. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 295, 616620.
  • [108]
    Franke, S., Grass, G., Nies, D.H. (2001) The product of the ybdE gene of the Escherichia coli chromosome is involved in detoxification of silver ions. Microbiology 147, 965972.
  • [109]
    Anton, A., Grosse, C., Reissmann, J., Pribyl, T., Nies, D.H. (1999) CzcD is a heavy metal ion transporter involved in regulation of heavy metal resistance in Ralstonia sp. strain CH34. J. Bacteriol. 181, 68766881.
  • [110]
    Kunito, T., Kusano, T., Oyaizu, H., Senoo, K., Kanazawa, S., Matsumoto, S. (1996) Cloning and sequence analysis of czc genes in Alcaligenes sp. strain CT14. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 60, 699704.
  • [111]
    Nies, D.H., Koch, S., Wachi, S., Peitzsch, N. M.H. Saier Jr. (1998) CHR, a novel family of prokaryotic proton motive force-driven transporters probably containing chromate/sulfate antiporters. J. Bacteriol. 180, 57995802.
  • [112]
    Juhnke, S., Peitzsch, N., Hübener, N., Grosse, C., Nies, D. (2002) New genes involved in chromate resistance in Ralstonia metallidurans strain CH34. Arch. Microbiol. 179, 1525.
  • [113]
    Neyt, C., Iriarte, M., Thi, V.H., Cornelis, G.R. (1997) Virulence and arsenic resistance in Yersiniae. J. Bacteriol. 179, 612619.
  • [114]
    Butcher, B.G., Deane, S.M., Rawlings, D.E. (2000) The chromosomal arsenic resistance genes of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans have an unusual arrangement and confer increased arsenic and antimony resistance to Escherichia coli. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66, 18261833.
  • [115]
    Diels, L., Sadouk, A., Mergeay, M. (1989) Large plasmids governing multiple resistance to heavy metals: a genetic approach. Toxicol. Environ. Chem. 23, 7989.
  • [116]
    Baker, A.J.M. (1987) Metal tolerance in plants. New Phytol. 106, 93111.
  • [117]
    Wattiez, R., Auquier, V., Noël-Georis, I., Vallaeys, T., Vandenbussche, G., Ruysschaert, J.-M., Falmagne, P. and Mergeay, M. (2003) Proteomic analysis of copper response in Ralstonia metallidurans CH34 unravels new resistance mechanisms. (in preparation).
  • [118]
    Noël-Georis, I., Vallaeys, T., Chauvaux, R., Monchy, S., Falmagne, P., Mergeay, M. and Wattiez, R. (2003) Global analysis of the Ralstonia metallidurans proteome: prelude for the large scale study of heavy metal response. (submitted).
  • [119]
    Liebert, C.A., Summers, A.O. (1999) Transposon Tn21, flagship of the floating genome. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 63, 507522.
  • [120]
    Hassan, M.T., van der Lelie, D., Springael, D., Romling, U., Ahmed, N., Mergeay, M. (1999) Identification of a gene cluster, czr, involved in cadmium and zinc resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Gene 238, 417425.
  • [121]
    O’Connor, C.D., Adams, P., Alefounder, P., Farris, M., Kinsella, N., Li, Y., Payot, S., Skipp, P. (2000) The analysis of microbial proteomes: strategies and data exploitation. Electrophoresis 21, 11781186.
  • [122]
    Washburn, M. J.R. Yates III (2000) Analysis of the microbial proteome. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 3, 292297.
  • [123]
    Brown, N.L., Rouch, D.A., Lee, B.T. (1992) Copper resistance determinants in bacteria. Plasmid 27, 4151.
  • [124]
    Brown, N.L., Barrett, S.R., Camakaris, J., Lee, B.T., Rouch, D.A. (1995) Molecular genetics and transport analysis of the copper-resistance determinant (pco) from Escherichia coli plasmid pRJ1004. Mol. Microbiol. 17, 11531166.
  • [125]
    Bender, C.L., Cooksey, D.A. (1986) Indigenous plasmids in Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato conjugative transfer and role in copper resistance. J. Bacteriol. 165, 534541.
  • [126]
    Bender, C.L., Cooksey, D.A. (1987) Molecular cloning of copper resistance genes from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. J. Bacteriol. 169, 470474.
  • [127]
    Cooksey, D.A. (1993) Copper uptake and resistance in bacteria. Mol. Microbiol. 7, 15.
  • [128]
    Cooksey, D.A. (1994) Molecular mechanisms of copper resistance and accumulation in bacteria. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 14, 381386.
  • [129]
    Cha, J.S., Cooksey, D.A. (1991) Copper resistance in Pseudomonas syringae mediated by periplasmic and outer membrane proteins. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 89158919.
  • [130]
    Mellano, M.A., Cooksey, D.A. (1988) Nucleotide sequence and organization of copper resistance genes from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. J. Bacteriol. 170, 28792883.
  • [131]
    Mills, S.D., Jasalavich, C.A., Cooksey, D.A. (1993) A two-component regulatory system required for copper-inducible expression of the copper resistance operon of Pseudomonas syringae. J. Bacteriol. 175, 16561664.
  • [132]
    Mills, S.D., Lim, C.K., Cooksey, D.A. (1994) Purification and characterization of CopR, a transcriptional activator protein that binds to a conserved domain (cop box) in copper-inducible promoters of Pseudomonas syringae. Mol. Gen. Genet. 244, 341351.
  • [133]
    Trajanovska, S., Britz, M.L., Bhave, M. (1997) Detection of heavy metal ion resistance genes in gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria isolated from a lead-contaminated site. Biodegradation 8, 113124.
  • [134]
    Roane, T.M. (1999) Lead resistance in two bacterial isolates from heavy metal-contaminated soils. Microb. Ecol. 37, 218224.
  • [135]
    Levinson, H.S., Mahler, I. (1998) Phosphatase activity and lead resistance in Citrobacter freundii and Staphylococcus aureus. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 161, 135138.
  • [136]
    Brocklehurst, K.R., Hobman, J.L., Lawley, B., Blank, L., Marshall, S.J., Brown, N.L., Morby, A.P. (1999) ZntR is a Zn(II)-responsive MerR-like transcriptional regulator of zntA in Escherichia coli. Mol. Microbiol. 31, 893902.
  • [137]
    Podlesek, Z., Comino, A., Herzog-Velikonja, B., Zgur-Bertok, D., Komel, R., Grabnar, M. (1995) Bacillus licheniformis bacitracin-resistance ABC transporter: relationship to mammalian multidrug resistance. Mol. Microbiol. 16, 969976.
  • [138]
    Koretke, K.K., Koretke, L.A.N., Warren, P.V., Rosenberg, M., Brown, J.R. (2000) Evolution of two-component signal transduction. Mol. Biol. Evol. 17, 19561970.
  • [139]
    Blattner, F.R. G. Plunkett III Bloch, C.A., Perna, N.T., Burland, V., Riley, M., Collado-Vides, J., Glasner, J.D., Rode, C.K., Mayhew, G.F., Gregor, J., Davis, N.W., Kirkpatrick, H.A., Goeden, M.A., Rose, D.J., Mau, B., Shao, Y. (1997) The complete genome sequence of Escherichia coli K-12. Science 277, 14531474.
  • [140]
    Stover, C.K., Pham, X.Q., Erwin, A.L., Mizoguchi, S.D., Warrener, P., Hickey, M.J., Brinkman, F.S., Hufnagle, W.O., Kowalik, D.J., Lagrou, M., Garber, R.L., Goltry, L., Tolentino, E., Westbrock-Wadman, S., Yuan, Y., Brody, L.L., Coulter, S.N., Folger, K.R., Kas, A., Larbig, K., Lim, R., Smith, K., Spencer, D., Wong, G.K., Wu, Z., Paulsen, I.T., Reizer, J., Saier, M.H., Hancock, R.E., Lory, S., Olson, M.V. (2000) Complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01, an opportunistic pathogen. Nature 406, 959964.
  • [141]
    Grass, G., Rensing, C. (2001) Genes involved in copper homeostasis in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 183, 21452147.
  • [142]
    Kim, D., Forst, S. (2001) Genomic analysis of the histidine kinase family in bacteria and archea. Microbiology 147, 11971212.
  • [143]
    Hoch, J.A., Varughese, K.I. (2001) Keeping signals straight in phosphorelay signal transduction. J. Bacteriol. 183, 49414949.
  • [144]
    Lund, P.A., Ford, S.J., Brown, N.L. (1986) Transcriptional regulation of the mercury-resistance genes of transposon Tn501. J. Gen. Microbiol. 132, 465480.
  • [145]
    Adaikkalam, V., Swarup, S. (2002) Molecular characterization of an operon, cueAR, encoding a putative P1-type ATPase and a MerR-type regulatory protein involved in copper homeostasis in Pseudomonas putida. Microbiology (UK) 148, 28572867.
  • [146]
    Busenlehner, L.S., Penella, M.A., Giedroc, D.P. (2003) The SmtB/ArsR family of metalloregulatory transcriptional repressors: structural insights into prokaryotic metal resistance. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 27, 131143.
  • [147]
    Zierenberg, R.A., Adams, M.W., Arp, A.J. (2000) Life in extreme environments: hydrothermal vents. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 1296112962.
  • [148]
    Tong, L., Nakashima, S., Shibasaka, M., Katsuhara, M., Kasamo, K. (2002) A novel histidine-rich CPx-ATPase from the filamentous cyanobacterium Oscillatoria brevis related to multiple-heavy-metal cotolerance. J. Bacteriol. 184, 50275035.
  • [149]
    Rossbach, S., Kukuk, M.L., Wilson, T.L., Feng, S.F., Pearson, M.M., Fisher, M.A. (2000) Cadmium-regulated gene fusions in Pseudomonas fluorescens. Environ. Microbiol. 2, 373382.
  • [150]
    Nakamura, H., Murakami, H., Yamato, I., Anraku, Y. (1988) Nucleotide sequence of the cybB gene encoding cytochrome b561 in Escherichia coli K12. Mol. Gen. Genet. 212, 15.
  • [151]
    Delauney, A.J., Cheon, C.I., Snyder, P.J., Verma, D.P. (1990) A nodule-specific sequence encoding a methionine-rich polypeptide, nodulin-21. Plant Mol. Biol. 14, 449451.
  • [152]
    Kulakova, A.N., Kulakov, L.A., Akulenko, N.V., Ksenzenko, V.N., Hamilton, J.T., Quinn, J.P. (2001) Structural and functional analysis of the phosphonoacetate hydrolase (phnA) gene region in Pseudomonas fluorescens 23F. J. Bacteriol. 183, 32683275.