Bacteria were isolated from the mycelial surface of Pleurotus ostreatus and their role in fruiting body induction (fructification) of the edible mushroom P. ostreatus was investigated. Analysis of the bacterial community that colonized the mycelium showed that the species composition and numbers of culturable bacteria differed according to the developmental stage of P. ostreatus. In particular, the population size of fluorescent pseudomonads increased during fruiting body induction. An experiment showed that inoculation of pure cultures of the mycelium with strains of fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. isolated from the mycelial plane of commercially produced mushrooms promoted the formation of primordia and enhanced the development of the basidiome of P. ostreatus. Results of this research strongly suggest that inoculation of the mycelium with specific bacteria may have beneficial applications for mushroom production.