• Anammox;
  • Nitrification;
  • Gas-lift reactor;
  • CANON;
  • Ammonia


Anoxic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) and Completely Autotrophic Nitrogen removal Over Nitrite (CANON) are new and promising microbial processes to remove ammonia from wastewaters characterized by a low content of organic materials. These two processes were investigated on their feasibility and performance in a gas-lift reactor. The Anammox as well as the CANON process could be maintained easily in a gas-lift reactor, and very high N-conversion rates were achieved. An N-removal rate of 8.9 kg N (m3 reactor)−1 day−1 was achieved for the Anammox process in a gas-lift reactor. N-removal rates of up to 1.5 kg N (m3 reactor)−1 day−1 were achieved when the CANON process was operated. This removal rate was 20 times higher compared to the removal rates achieved in the laboratory previously. Fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that the biomass consisted of bacteria reacting to NEU, a 16S rRNA targeted probe specific for halotolerant and halophilic Nitrosomonads, and of bacteria reacting to Amx820, specific for planctomycetes capable of Anammox.