• [1]
    Falkengren-Grerup, U (1987) Long-term changes in pH of forest soils in southern Sweden. Environ. Pollut. 43, 7990.
  • [2]
    L?kke, H, Bak, J, Falkengren-Grerup, U, Finlay, R.D, Ilvesniemi, H, Holm-Nygaard, P, Starr, M (1996) Critical loads of acidic deposition for forest soils: Is the current approach adequate. Ambio 8, 510516.
  • [3]
    Clarholm, M (1994) Granulated wood ash and a ‘N-free’ fertilizer to a forest soil-effects on P availability. For. Ecol. Manage. 66, 127136.
  • [4]
    Clarholm, M (1998) Wood ash to counteract potential phosphorus and potassium limitations in a Norway spruce forest subjected to air pollution. Scand. J. For. Res. (Suppl.) 2, 6775.
  • [5]
    Jacobson, S. and Ring, E. (1995) Effekter av granulerad vedaska på skogsproduction, barrkemi och markvattenkemi. Slutrapport för projekt U(B)92-794, Ramprogram askåterföring (in Swedish).
  • [6]
    Mahmood, S, Finlay, R.D, Wallander, H, Erland, S (2002) Ectomycorrhizal colonisation of roots and ash granules in a granulated wood ash fertilised spruce forest. For. Ecol. Manage. 160, 6574.
  • [7]
    Mahmood, S, Finlay, R.D, Erland, S, Wallander, H (2001) Solubilisation and colonisation of wood ash by ectomycorrhizal fungi isolated from a wood ash fertilised spruce forest. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 35, 151161.
  • [8]
    Mahmood, S, Finlay, R.D, Fransson, A-M, Wallander, H (2003) Effects of hardened wood ash on microbial activity, plant growth and nutrient uptake by ectomycorrhizal spruce seedlings. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 43, 121131.
  • [9]
    Blum, J.D, Klaue, A, Nezat, C.A, Driscoll, C.T, Johnson, C.E, Siccama, T.G, Eagar, C, Fahey, T.J, Likens, G.E (2002) Mycorrhizal weathering of apatite as an important calcium source in base-poor forest ecosystems. Nature 417, 729731.
  • [10]
    Jongmans, A.G, Van Breemen, N, Lundström, U, Van Hess, P.A.W, Finlay, R.D, Srinivasan, M, Unestam, T, Giesler, R, Melkerud, P.-A, Olsson, M (1997) Rock-eating fungi. Nature 389, 682683.
  • [11]
    Wallander, H, Wickman, T, Jacks, G (1997) Apatite as a P source in mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal Pinus sylvestris seedlings. Plant Soil 196, 123131.
  • [12]
    Wallander, H, Wickman, T (1999) Biotite and microcline as potassium sources in ectomycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal Pinus sylvestris seedlings. Mycorrhiza 9, 2532.
  • [13]
    Wallander, H (2000) Uptake of P from apatite by Pinus sylvestris seedlings colonised by different ectomycorrhizal fungi. Plant Soil 218, 249256.
  • [14]
    Wallander, H (2000) Use of strontium isotopes and foliar K content to estimate weathering of biotite induced by pine seedlings colonised by ectomycorrhizal fungi from two different soils. Plant Soil 222, 215229.
  • [15]
    Wallander, H., Mahmood, S., Hagerberg, D., Johansson, L., Pallon, J. (2003) Elemental composition of ectomycorrhizal mycelia identified by PCR-RFLP analysis and grown in contact with apatite or wood ash in forest soil. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 48, 1–9. S0168-6496(02)00456-7.
  • [16]
    Mahmood, S. (2000) Ectomycorrhizal community structure and function in relation to forest residue harvesting and wood ash applications. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Lund.
  • [17]
    Duddridge, J.A (1986) The development and ultrastructure of ectomycorrhizas. III. Compatible and incompatible interactions between Suillus grevillei (Klotzch) Sing., and 11 species of ectomycorrhizal hosts in vitro in the absence of exogenous carbohydrate. New Phytol. 103, 457464.
  • [18]
    Finlay, R.D, Ek, H, Odham, G, Söderström, B (1988) Mycelial uptake, translocation and assimilation of nitrogen from 15N-labelled ammonium by Pinus sylvestris plants infected with four different ectomycorrhizal fungi. New Phytol. 110, 5966.
  • [19]
    Wu, B, Nara, K, Hogetsu, T (2001) Can 14C-labeled photosynthetic products move between Pinus densiflora seedlings linked by ectomycorrhizal mycelia. New Phytol. 149, 137146.
  • [20]
    Mahmood, S, Finlay, R.D, Erland, S (1999) Effects of repeated harvesting of forest residues on the ectomycorrhizal community in a Swedish spruce forest. New Phytol. 142, 577585.
  • [21]
    White, T.J., Brun, T., Lee, S. and Taylor, J. (1990) Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. In: PCR Protocols: A guide to methods and applications (Innis, M.A., Gelfand, D.H., Sninsky, J.J. and White, D.J., Eds.), pp. 315–322. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
  • [22]
    Sambrook, J., Fritsch F.E. and Maniatis, T. (1989) Molecular Cloning: A laboratory manual. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY.
  • [23]
    Erland, S. (1990) Effects of liming on pine ectomycorrhiza. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Lund.
  • [24]
    Erland, S, Söderström, B (1990) Effects of liming on ectomycorrhizal fungi infecting Pinus sylvestris L. I. Mycorrhizal infection in limed humus in the laboratory and isolation of fungi from mycorrhizal roots. New Phytol. 115, 675682.
  • [25]
    Unger, Y.L, Fernandez, I.J (1990) The short-term effects of wood-ash amendments on forest soils. Water Air Soil Pollut. 49, 299314.
  • [26]
    Ferm, A, Hokkanen, T, Moilanen, M, Issakainen, J (1992) Effect of wood bark ash on the growth and nutrition of a Scots pine afforestation in central Finland. Plant Soil 147, 305316.
  • [27]
    Voundi Nkana, J.C, Demeyer, A, Verloo, M.G (1998) Chemical effects of wood ash on plant growth in tropical acid soils. Bioresource Technol. 63, 251260.
  • [28]
    Erland, S. and Taylor, A.F.S. (1999) Resupinate ectomycorrhizal fungal genera. In: Ectomycorrhizal Fungi: Key Genera in Profile (Cairney, J.W.G. and Chambers, S.M., Eds.), pp. 347–363. Springer, New York.
  • [29]
    Finlay, R.D, Frostegård, Å, Sonnerfeldt, A.M (1992) Utilization of organic and inorganic nitrogen sources by ectomycorrhizal fungi in pure culture and in symbiosis with Pinus contorta Dougl. Ex Loud. New Phytol. 120, 105115.
  • [30]
    Bramryd, T, Fransman, B (1995) Silvicultural use of wood ashes: Effects on the nutrient and heavy metal balance in a pine (Pinus sylvestris, L.) forest soil. Water Air Soil Pollut. 82, 10391044.
  • [31]
    Fritze, H, Kapanen, A, Vanhala, P (1995) Cadmium contamination of wood ash and fire-treated coniferous humus: effects on soil respiration. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 54, 775782.
  • [32]
    Narodoslawsky, M, Obernberger, I (1996) From waste to raw material - the route from biomass to wood ash for cadmium and other heavy metals. J. Hazard. Mat. 50, 157168.
  • [33]
    Ahonen-Jonnarth, U. (2000) Growth, nutrient uptake and ectomycorrhizal function in Pinus sylvestris plants exposed to aluminium and heavy metals. Ph.D. Thesis, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
  • [34]
    Arnebrant, K. (1996) Effects of nitrogen amendments on the colonization potential of some different ectomycorrhizal fungi grown in symbiosis with a host plant. In: Mycorrhizas in Integrated Systems from Genes to Plant Development. Proceedings of the Fourth European Symposium on Mycorrhizas (Azcon-Aguilar, C. and Barea, J.M., Eds.), pp. 71–74. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.
  • [35]
    Jonsson, L, Dahlberg, A, Brandrud, T.-E (2000) Spatiotemporal distribution of an ectomycorrhizal community in an oligotrophic Swedish Picea abies forest subjected to experimental nitrogen addition: above- and below-ground views. For. Ecol. Manage. 132, 143156.
  • [36]
    Wallander, H, Nylund, J.-E (1992) Effects of excess nitrogen and phosphorus starvation on the extramatrical mycelium of ectomycorrhizas of Pinus sylvestris L. New Phytol. 120, 495503.
  • [37]
    Arnebrant, K (1994) Nitrogen amendments reduce the growth of extramatrical ectomycorrhizal mycelium. Mycorrhiza 5, 715.
  • [38]
    Wallenda, T, Kottke, I (1998) Nitrogen deposition and ectomycorrhizas. New Phytol. 139, 169187.