The feasibility of articular gene therapy using insulin-like growth factor-I transgene expression in synovial tissues was assessed in vitro by transfection of synovial explant and monolayer cultures. Synovial membrane was harvested from horses and distributed for explant culture in multiwell plates or digested for monolayer culture in multiwell plates and chamber slides. Synovial monolayers were cultured for 48 h after infection with 0, 100, 200, or 500 moi adenovirus-IGF-I (AdeIGF-I) to establish an optimum dose. Explants were then either infected with AdeIGF-I or adenoviral LacZ and cultured for 8 days, treated with 100 ng/ml recombinant IGF-I as a positive control, or remained as uninfected untreated culture controls. Expression of IGF-I in explants and monolayers was assessed by in situ hybridization and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and translation confirmed by IGF-I radioimmunoassay (RIA) and tissue immunoreaction. Effects of IGF-I on synovial function was assessed by proteoglycan and hyaluronan assay, and northern blot assessment of decorin and collagen type I expression. Significant transgene expression in synovial cells was present for all AdeIGF-I concentrations. Similarly, medium IGF-I concentrations were significantly elevated in AdeIGF-I infected synovial monolayer and explant cultures at all time points. Peak IGF-I concentration of 246 ± 43 ng/ml developed in explant cultures on day 4; IGF-I levels in control explant groups were unchanged over baseline values. In situ hybridization and immunolocalization for IGF-I indicated focal IGF-I expression in intimal and subintimal layers of infected explants, with diffuse immunoreaction throughout infected subintimal and fibrous layers. For monolayer cultures, intracellular immunoreaction to IGF-I was markedly higher in infected cells, and was most prominent at 100 moi. Effects of IGF-I on synoviocyte cultures were evident on northern blots, which showed decreased decorin expression and elevated type I collagen production in AdeIGF-I infected monolayers. Proteoglycan concentration in the medium from explant cultures rose over the initial 4 days but was similar between treatment groups. The concentration of hyaluronan in medium from explant cultures did not differ significantly within or between treated and control groups during the 8-day study period. These data indicate that IGF-I can be successfully introduced to synovial structures by adenoviral vectors and results in effective IGF-I ligand synthesis without untoward synovial morphologic effects. © 2001 Orthopaedic Research Society. Punlished by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.