• 1
    Berg HE, Dudley GA, Haggmark T, Ohlsen H, Tesch PA. Effects of lower limb unloading on skeletal muscle mass and function in humans. J Appl Physiol 1991; 70(4): 18825.
  • 2
    Bolanos AA, Colizza WA, McCann PD, Gotlin RS, Wootten ME, Kahn BA, et al. A comparison of isokinetic strength testing and gait analysis in patients with posterior cruciate-retaining and substituting knee arthroplasties. J Arthroplasty 1998; 13(8): 90615.
  • 3
    Brander VA, Mullarkey CF, Stulberg SD. Rehabilitation after total joint replacement for osteoarthritis: an evidence-based approach. Philadelphia: Hanley and Belfus, Inc.; 2001.
  • 4
    Brandt KD, Heilman DK, Slemenda C, Katz BP, Mazzuca SA, Braunstein EM, et al. Quadriceps strength in women with radiographically progressive osteoarthritis of the knee and those with stable radiographic changes. J Rheumatol 1999; 26(11): 24317.
  • 5
    Chandler JM, Duncan PW, Kochersberger G, Studenski S. Is lower extremity strength gain associated with improvement in physical performance and disability in frail, community-dwelling elders? Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1998; 79(1): 2430.
  • 6
    De Serres SJ, Enoka RM. Older adults can maximally activate the biceps brachii muscle by voluntary command. J Appl Physiol 1998; 84(1): 28491.
  • 7
    Harridge SD, Kryger A, Stensgaard A. Knee extensor strength, activation, and size in very elderly people following strength training. Muscle Nerve 1999; 22(7): 8319.
  • 8
    Hather BM, Adams GR, Tesch PA, Dudley GA. Skeletal muscle responses to lower limb suspension in humans. J Appl Physiol 1992; 72(4): 14938.
  • 9
    Hsu RW, Tsai YH, Huang TJ, Chang JC. Hybrid total knee arthroplasty: a 3- to 6-year outcome analysis. J Formos Med Assoc 1998; 97(6): 4105.
  • 10
  • 11
    Huang CH, Lee YM, Liau JJ, Cheng CK. Comparison of muscle strength of posterior cruciate-retained versus cruciate-sacrificed total knee arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty 1998; 13(7): 77983.
  • 12
    Hurley MV, Newham DJ. The influence of arthrogenous muscle inhibition on quadriceps rehabilitation of patients with early, unilateral osteoarthritic knees. Br J Rheumatol 1993; 32(2): 12731.
  • 13
    Hurley MV, Scott DL. Improvements in quadriceps sensorimotor function and disability of patients with knee osteoarthritis following a clinically practicable exercise regime. Br J Rheumatol 1998; 37(11): 11817.
  • 14
    Irrgang JJ, Snyder-Mackler L, Wainner RS, Fu FH, Harner CD. Development of a patient-reported measure of function of the knee. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1998; 80(8): 113245.
  • 15
    Kent-Braun JA, Le Blanc R. Quantitation of central activation failure during maximal voluntary contractions in humans. Muscle Nerve 1996; 19(7): 8619.
  • 16
    Lundeberg T, Lund I, Dahlin L, Borg E, Gustafsson C, Sandin L, et al. Reliability and responsiveness of three different pain assessments. J Rehabil Med 2001; 33(6): 27983.
  • 17
    Machner A, Pap G, Awiszus F. Evaluation of quadriceps strength and voluntary activation after unicompartmental arthroplasty for medial osteoarthritis of the knee. J Orthop Res 2002; 20(1): 10811.
  • 18
    Marx RG, Jones EC, Allen AA, Altchek DW, O'Brien SJ, Rodeo SA, et al. Reliability, validity, and responsiveness of four knee outcome scales for athletic patients. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2001; 83-A(10): 145969.
  • 19
    Nussenzveig TC. Pain management after total joint replacement and its impact on patient outcomes. Aorn J 1999; 70(6): 10602.
  • 20
    O'Reilly SC, Jones A, Muir KR, Doherty M. Quadriceps weakness in knee osteoarthritis: the effect on pain and disability. Ann Rheum Dis 1998; 57(10): 58894.
  • 21
    Perhonen M, Komi P, Hakkinen K, von Bonsdorff H, Partio E. Strength training and neuromuscular function in elderly people with total knee endoprosthesis. Scand J Med Sci Sports 1992; 2: 23443.
  • 22
    Rodgers JA, Garvin KL, Walker CW, Morford D, Urban J, Bedard J. Preoperative physical therapy in primary total knee arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty 1998; 13(4): 41421.
  • 23
    Shaffer MA, Okereke E, Esterhai Jr JL, Elliott MA, Walker GA, Yim SH, et al. Effects of immobilization on plantar-flexion torque, fatigue resistance, and functional ability following an ankle fracture. Phys Ther 2000; 80(8): 76980.
  • 24
    Snyder-Mackler L, De Luca PF, Williams PR, Eastlack ME, Bartolozzi 3rd AR. Reflex inhibition of the quadriceps femoris muscle after injury or reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1994; 76(4): 55560.
  • 25
    Stackhouse SK, Dean JC, Lee SC, Binder-MacLeod SA. Measurement of central activation failure of the quadriceps femoris in healthy adults. Muscle Nerve 2000; 23(11): 170612.
  • 26
    Stevens JE, Binder-Macleod S, Snyder-Mackler L. Characterization of the human quadriceps muscle in active elders. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001; 82(7): 9738.
  • 27
    Veldhuizen JW, Verstappen FT, Vroemen JP, Kuipers H, Greep JM. Functional and morphological adaptations following four weeks of knee immobilization. Int J Sports Med 1993; 14(5): 2837.
  • 28
    Walsh M, Woodhouse LJ, Thomas SG, Finch E. Physical impairments and functional limitations: a comparison of individuals 1 year after total knee arthroplasty with control subjects. Phys Ther 1998; 78(3): 24858.
  • 29
    Wolfson L, Judge J, Whipple R, King M. Strength is a major factor in balance, gait, and the occurrence of falls. J Gerontol A: Biol Sci Med Sci 1995; 50, Spec No: 647.