• [1]
    Waldvogel, F.A. and Bisno, A.L. (2000) Infections Associated with Indwelling Medical Devices. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.
  • [2]
    Vaudaux, P., Francois, P., Lew, D.P. and Waldvogel, F.A. (2000) Host factors predisposing to and influencing therapy of foreign body infections. In: Infections Associated with Indwelling Medical Devices (Waldvogel, F.A. and Bisno, A.L., Eds.), pp. 1–26. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.
  • [3]
    Zimmerli, W., Waldvogel, F.A., Vaudaux, P., Nydegger, U.E. (1982) Pathogenesis of foreign body infection: Description and characteristics of an animal model. J. Infect. Dis. 146, 487497.
  • [4]
    Vaudaux, P., Grau, G.E., Huggler, E., Schumacher Perdreau, F., Fiedler, F., Waldvogel, F.A., Lew, D.P. (1992) Contribution of tumor necrosis factor to host defense against staphylococci in a guinea pig model of foreign body infections. J. Infect. Dis. 166, 5864.
  • [5]
    Vaudaux, P., Suzuki, R., Waldvogel, F.A., Morgenthaler, J.J., Nydegger, U.E. (1984) Foreign body infection: role of fibronectin as a ligand for the adherence of Staphylococcus aureus. J. Infect. Dis. 150, 546553.
  • [6]
    Delmi, M., Vaudaux, P., Lew, D.P., Vasey, H. (1994) Role of fibronectin on staphylococcal adhesion to metallic surfaces used as models of orthopaedic devices. J. Orthop. Res. 12, 432438.
  • [7]
    Vaudaux, P. (2000) In vivo models for studying staphylococcal adhesion to biomaterials. In: Handbook of Bacterial Adhesion (An, Y.H. and Friedman, R.J., Eds.), pp. 397–409. Humana Press Inc., Totowa, NJ.
  • [8]
    Costerton, J.W., Stewart, P.S., Greenberg, E.P. (1999) Bacterial biofilms: a common cause of persistent infections. Science 284, 13181322.
  • [9]
    Götz, F. and Peters, G. (2000) Colonization of medical devices by coagulase-negative staphylococci. In: Infections Associated with Indwelling Medical Devices (Waldvogel, F.A. and Bisno, A.L., Eds.), pp. 55–88. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.
  • [10]
    Götz, F. (2002) Staphylococcus and biofilms. Mol. Microbiol. 43, 13671378.
  • [11]
    Mack, D., Nedelmann, M., Krokotsch, A., Schwarzkopf, A., Heesemann, J., Laufs, R. (1994) Characterization of transposon mutants of biofilm-producing Staphylococcus epidermidis impaired in the accumulative phase of biofilm production: Genetic identification of a hexosamine-containing polysaccharide intercellular adhesin. Infect. Immun. 62, 32443253.
  • [12]
    McKenney, D., Hubner, J., Muller, E., Wang, Y., Goldmann, D.A., Pier, G.B. (1998) The ica locus of Staphylococcus epidermidis encodes production of the capsular polysaccharide/adhesin. Infect. Immun. 66, 47114720.
  • [13]
    Gerke, C., Kraft, A., Süssmuth, R., Schweitzer, O., Götz, F. (1998) Characterization of the N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase activity involved in the biosynthesis of the Staphylococcus epidermidis polysaccharide intercellular adhesin. J. Biol. Chem. 273, 1858618593.
  • [14]
    Heilmann, C., Schweitzer, O., Gerke, C., Vanittanakom, N., Mack, D., Götz, F. (1996) Molecular basis of intercellular adhesion in the biofilm-forming Staphylococcus epidermidis. Mol. Microbiol. 20, 10831091.
  • [15]
    Ziebuhr, W., Heilmann, C., Götz, F., Meyer, P., Wilms, K., Straube, B., Hacker, J. (1997) Detection of the intercellular adhesion gene cluster (ica) and phase variation in Staphylococcus epidermidis blood culture strains and mucosal isolates. Infect. Immun. 65, 890896.
  • [16]
    Fey, P.D., Ulphani, J.S., Götz, F., Heilmann, C., Mack, D., Rupp, M.E. (1999) Characterization of the relationship between polysaccharide intercellular adhesin and hemagglutination in Staphylococcus epidermidis. J. Infect. Dis. 179, 15611564.
  • [17]
    Cramton, S.E., Gerke, C., Schnell, N.F., Nichols, W.W., Götz, F. (1999) The intercellular adhesion (ica) locus is present in Staphylococcus aureus and is required for biofilm formation. Infect. Immun. 67, 54275433.
  • [18]
    Rupp, M.E., Ulphani, J.S., Fey, P.D., Bartscht, K., Mack, D. (1999) Characterization of the importance of polysaccharide intercellular adhesin/hemagglutinin of Staphylococcus epidermidis in the pathogenesis of biomaterial-based infection in a mouse foreign body infection model. Infect. Immun. 67, 26272632.
  • [19]
    Rupp, M.E., Ulphani, J.S., Fey, P.D., Mack, D. (1999) Characterization of Staphylococcus epidermidis polysaccharide intercellular adhesin/hemagglutinin in the pathogenesis of intravascular catheter-associated infection in a rat model. Infect. Immun. 67, 26562659.
  • [20]
    McDermid, K.P., Morck, D.W., Olson, M.E., Boyd, N.D., Khoury, A.E., Dasgupta, M.K., Costerton, J.W. (1993) A porcine model of Staphylococcus epidermidis catheter-associated infection. J. Infect. Dis. 168, 897903.
  • [21]
    Shiro, H., Muller, E., Gutierrez, N., Boisot, S., Grout, M., Tosteson, T.D., Goldmann, D., Pier, G.B. (1994) Transposon mutants of Staphylococcus epidermidis deficient in elaboration of capsular polysaccharide/adhesin and slime are avirulent in a rabbit model of endocarditis. J. Infect. Dis. 169, 10421049.
  • [22]
    Patrick, C.C., Hetherington, S.V., Roberson, P.K., Henwick, S., Sloas, M.M. (1995) Comparative virulence of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates in a murine catheter model. Pediatr. Res. 37, 7074.
  • [23]
    Christensen, G.D., Baldassarri, L., and Simpson, W.A. (1994) Colonization of medical devices by coagulase-negative staphylococci. In: Infections Associated with Indwelling Medical Devices (Bisno, A.L. and Waldvogel, F.A., Eds.), pp. 45–78. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
  • [24]
    Perdreau-Remington, F., Sande, M.A., Peters, G., Chambers, H.F. (1998) The abilities of a Staphylococcus epidermidis wild-type strain and its slime-negative mutant to induce endocarditis in rabbits are comparable. Infect. Immun. 66, 27782781.
  • [25]
    Rupp, M.E., Fey, P.D., Heilmann, C., Götz, F. (2001) Characterization of the importance of Staphylococcus epidermidis autolysin and polysaccharide intercellular adhesin in the pathogenesis of intravascular catheter-associated infection in a rat model. J. Infect. Dis. 183, 10381042.
  • [26]
    Mack, D., Riedewald, J., Rohde, H., Magnus, T., Feucht, H.H., Elsner, H.A., Laufs, R., Rupp, M.E. (1999) Essential functional role of the polysaccharide intercellular adhesin of Staphylococcus epidermidis in hemagglutination. Infect. Immun. 67, 10041008.
  • [27]
    Cramton, S.E., Ulrich, M., Götz, F., Doring, G. (2001) Anaerobic conditions induce expression of polysaccharide intercellular adhesin in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Infect. Immun. 69, 40794085.
  • [28]
    Schaad, H.J., Chuard, C., Vaudaux, P., Waldvogel, F.A., Lew, D.P. (1994) Teicoplanin alone or combined with rifampin compared with vancomycin for prophylaxis and treatment of experimental foreign body infection by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 38, 17031710.
  • [29]
    Rupp, M.E., Fey, P.D. (2001) In vivo models to evaluate adhesion and biofilm formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis. Methods Enzymol. 336, 206215.
  • [30]
    Yasuda, H., Koga, T., Fukuoka, T. (1999) In vitro and in vivo models of bacterial biofilms. Methods Enzymol. 310, 577595.
  • [31]
    Dasgupta, M.K., Ward, K., Noble, P.A., Larabie, M., Costerton, J.W. (1994) Development of bacterial biofilms on silastic catheter materials in peritoneal dialysis fluid. Am. J. Kidney Dis. 23, 709716.
  • [32]
    Patti, J.M., Allen, B.L., McGavin, M.J., Höök, M. (1994) MSCRAMM-mediated adherence of microorganisms to host tissues. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 48, 585617.
  • [33]
    Francois, P., Letourneur, D., Lew, D.P., Jozefonwicz, J., Vaudaux, P. (1999) Inhibition by heparin and derivatized dextrans of Staphylococcus epidermidis adhesion to in vitro fibronectin-coated or explanted polymer surfaces. J. Biomater. Sci. Polym. Ed. 10, 12071221.
  • [34]
    Mack, D., Rohde, H., Dobinsky, S., Riedewald, J., Nedelmann, M., Knobloch, J.K., Elsner, H.A., Feucht, H.H. (2000) Identification of three essential regulatory gene loci governing expression of Staphylococcus epidermidis polysaccharide intercellular adhesin and biofilm formation. Infect. Immun. 68, 37993807.
  • [35]
    Knobloch, J.K., Bartscht, K., Sabottke, A., Rohde, H., Feucht, H.H., Mack, D. (2001) Biofilm formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis depends on functional RsbU, an activator of the sigB operon: differential activation mechanisms due to ethanol and salt stress. J. Bacteriol. 183, 26242633.
  • [36]
    Dobinsky, S., Bartscht, K., Mack, D. (2002) Influence of Tn917 insertion on transcription of the icaADBC operon in six biofilm-negative transposon mutants of Staphylococcus epidermidis. Plasmid 47, 1017.
  • [37]
    Knobloch, J.K., Horstkotte, M.A., Rohde, H., Kaulfers, P.M., Mack, D. (2002) Alcoholic ingredients in skin disinfectants increase biofilm expression of Staphylococcus epidermidis. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 49, 683687.
  • [38]
    Baba, T., Takeuchi, F., Kuroda, M., Yuzawa, H., Aoki, K., Oguchi, A., Nagai, Y., Iwama, N., Asano, K., Naimi, T., Kuroda, H., Cui, L., Yamamoto, K., Hiramatsu, K. (2002) Genome and virulence determinants of high virulence community-acquired MRSA. Lancet 359, 18191827.