• [1]
    Taylor, J.W., Geiser, D.M., Burt, A., Koufopanou, V. (1999) The evolutionary biology and population genetics underlying fungal strain typing. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 12, 126146.
  • [2]
    Soll, D.R. (2000) The ins and outs of DNA fingerprinting the infectious fungi. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 13, 332370.
  • [3]
    Soll, D.R., Lockhart, S.R. and Pujol, C. (2003) Laboratory procedures for the epidemiological analysis of microorganisms. In: Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 8th ed. (Murray, P.R., Baron, E.J., Pfaller, M.A., Tenvver, F.C. and Yoken, R.H., Eds.), pp. 139–151. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
  • [4]
    Schmid, J., Voss, E., Soll, D.R. (1990) Computer-assisted methods for assessing strain relatedness in Candida albicans by fingerprinting with the moderately repetitive sequence Ca3. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28, 12361243.
  • [5]
    Pujol, C., Joly, S., Lockhart, S.R., Noel, S., Tibayrenc, M., Soll, D.R. (1997) Parity among the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA method, multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, and southern blot hybridization with the moderately repetitive DNA probe Ca3 for fingerprinting Candida albicans. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35, 23482358.
  • [6]
    Joly, S., Pujol, C., Schröppel, K., Soll, D.R. (1996) Development of two species-specific fingerprinting probes for broad computer-assisted epidemiological studies of Candida tropicalis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34, 30633071.
  • [7]
    Lockhart, S.R., Joly, S., Pujol, C., Sobel, J., Pfaller, M., Soll, D.R. (1997) Development and verification of fingerprinting probes for Candida glabrata. Microbiology 143, 37333746.
  • [8]
    Joly, S., Pujol, C., Rysz, M., Vargas, K., Soll, D.R. (1999) Development and characterization of complex DNA fingerprinting probes for the infectious yeast Candida dubliniensis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37, 10351044.
  • [9]
    Blignaut, E., Pujol, C., Lockhart, S., Joly, S., Soll, D.R. (2002) Ca3 fingerprinting of Candida albicans isolates from human immunodeficiency virus-positive individuals reveals a new clade in South Africa. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40, 826836.
  • [10]
    Pujol, C., Pfaller, M., Soll, D.R. (2002) Ca3 fingerprinting of C. albicans bloodstream isolates from the United States, Canada, South America and Europe reveals a European clade. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40, 27292740.
  • [11]
    Hull, C.M., Johnson, A.D. (1999) Identification of a mating type-like locus in the asexual pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. Science 285, 12711275.
  • [12]
    Hull, C.M., Raisner, R.M., Johnson, A.D. (2000) Evidence for mating of the ‘asexual’ yeast Candida albicans in mammals. Science 289, 307310.
  • [13]
    Magee, B.B., Magee, P.T. (2000) Induction of mating in Candida albicans by construction of MTLa and MTLα strains. Science 289, 310313.
  • [14]
    Miller, M.G., Johnson, A.D. (2002) White-opaque switching in Candida albicans is controlled by the mating type (MLT) locus and allows efficient mating. Cell 110, 293302.
  • [15]
    Lockhart, S.R., Daniels, K.J., Zhao, R., Wessels, D., Soll, D.R. (2003) Cell biology of mating in Candida albicans. Eukaryot. Cell 2, 4961.
  • [16]
    Blignaut, E., Pujol, C., Joly, S., Soll, D.R. (2003) Racial distribution of Candida dubliniensis colonization among South Africans. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41, 18381842.
  • [17]
    Lott, T.J., Logan, D.A., Holloway, B.P., Fundyga, R., Arnold, J. (1999) Towards understanding the evolution of the human commensal yeast, Candida albicans. Microbiology 145, 11371143.
  • [18]
    Odds, F.C. (1988) Candida and Candidosis. Bailliere Tindall, London.
  • [19]
    Lockhart, S.R., Reed, B., Pierson, C.L., Soll, D.R. (1996) Most frequent scenario for recurrent Candida vaginitis is strain maintenance with ‘substrain shuffling’: demonstration by sequential DNA fingerprinting with probes Ca3, C1, and CARE2. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34, 767777.
  • [20]
    Anderson, J.B., Wickens, C., Khan, M., Cowen, L.E., Federspiel, N., Jones, T., Kohn, L.M. (2001) Infrequent genetic exchange and recombination in the mitochondrial genome of Candida albicans. J. Bacteriol. 183, 865872.
  • [21]
    Pujol, C., Reynes, J., Renaud, F., Raymond, M., Tibayrene, M., Ayala, F.J., Jambon, F., Mallie, M., Bastide, J.-M. (1993) The yeast Candida albicans has a clonal mode of reproduction in a population of infected human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90, 94569459.
  • [22]
    Gräser, Y., Volovsek, M., Arrington, J., Schönian, G., Presber, W., Mitchell, T.G., Vilgalys, R. (1996) Molecular markers reveal that population structure of the human pathogen Candida albicans exhibits both clonality and recombination. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 1247312477.
  • [23]
    Lockhart, S.R., Pujol, C., Daniels, K., Miller, M., Johnson, A., Soll, D.R. (2002) In Candida albicans, white-opaque switchers are homozygous for mating type. Genetics 162, 737745.
  • [24]
    Tzung, K.W., Williams, R.M., Scherer, S., Federspiel, N., Jones, T., Hansen, N., Bivolarevic, V., Huizar, L., Komp, C., Surzycki, R., Tamse, R., Davis, R.W., Agabian, N. (2001) Genomic evidence for a complete sexual cycle in Candida albicans. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98, 32493253.
  • [25]
    Chen, J., Lane, S., Liu, H. (2002) A conserved mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway is required for mating in Candida albicans. Mol. Microbiol. 46, 13351344.
  • [26]
    Magee, B.B., Legrand, M., Alarco, A.M., Raymond, M., Magee, P.T. (2002) Many of the genes required for mating in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are also required for mating in Candida albicans. Mol. Microbiol. 46, 13451351.
  • [27]
    Bennett, R.J., Johnson, A.D. (2003) Completion of parasexual cycle in Candida albicans by induced chromosome loss in tetraploid strains. EMBO J. 22, 25052515.
  • [28]
    Poulter, R.T., Rikkerink, E.H. (1983) Genetic analysis of red, adenine-requiring mutants of Candida albicans. J. Bacteriol. 156, 10661077.
  • [29]
    Lachke, S.A., Lockhart, S.R., Daniels, K.J., Soll, D.R. (2003) Skin facilitates Candida albicans mating. Infect. Immun. 71, 49704976.
  • [30]
    Rex, J.H., Pfaller, M.A., Galgiani, J.N., Bartlett, M.S., Espinel-Ingroff, A., Ghannoum, M.A., Lancaster, M., Odds, F.C., Rinaldi, M.G., Walsh, T.J., Barry, A.L. and Subcommittee on Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (1997) Development of interpretive breakpoints for antifungal susceptibility testing: conceptual framework and analysis of in vitro-in vivo correlation data for fluconazole, itraconazole, and Candida infections. Clin. Infect. Dis. 24, 235–247.