• [1]
    Murray, B.E. (1990) The life and times of the Enterococcus. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 3, 4665.
  • [2]
    A.J. Morrison Jr. Wenzel, R.P. (1986) Nosocomial urinary tract infections due to enterococcus. Ten years’ experience at a university hospital. Arch. Intern. Med. 146, 15491551.
  • [3]
    Patterson, J.E., Sweeney, A.H., Simms, M., Carley, N., Mangi, R., Sabetta, J., Lyons, R.W. (1995) An analysis of 110 serious enterococcal infections. Epidemiology, antibiotic susceptibility, and outcome. Medicine (Baltimore) 74, 191200.
  • [4]
    Maki, D.G., Agger, W.A. (1988) Enterococcal bacteremia: clinical features, the risk of endocarditis, and management. Medicine (Baltimore) 67, 248269.
  • [5]
    Huycke, M.M., Sahm, D.F., Gilmore, M.S. (1998) Multiple-drug resistant enterococci: the nature of the problem and an agenda for the future. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 4, 239249.
  • [6]
    Torell, E., Cars, O., Olsson-Liljequist, B., Hoffman, B.M., Lindback, J., Burman, L.G. (1999) Near absence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci but high carriage rates of quinolone-resistant ampicillin-resistant enterococci among hospitalized patients and nonhospitalized individuals in Sweden. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37, 35093513.
  • [7]
    Hanberger, H., Hoffmann, M., Lindgren, S., Nilsson, L.E. (1997) High incidence of antibiotic resistance among bacteria in 4 intensive care units at a university hospital in Sweden. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 29, 607614.
  • [8]
    Harthug, S., Eide, G.E., Langeland, N. (2000) Nosocomial outbreak of ampicillin resistant Enterococcus faecium: risk factors for infection and fatal outcome. J. Hosp. Infect. 45, 135144.
  • [9]
    Simonsen, G.S., Andersen, B.M., Digranes, A., Harthug, S., Jacobsen, T., Lingaas, E., Natas, O.B., Olsvik, O., Ringertz, S.H., Skulberg, A., Syversen, G., Sundsfjord, A. (1998) Low faecal carrier rate of vancomycin resistant enterococci in Norwegian hospital patients. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 30, 465468.
  • [10]
    Torfoss, D., Aukrust, P., Brinch, L., Mathiesen, O., Simonsen, G.S., Axelsen, A.K., Gaustad, P. (1999) Carrier rate of resistant enterococci in a tertiary care hospital in Norway. Apmis 107, 545549.
  • [11]
    Harthug, S., Digranes, A., Hope, O., Kristiansen, B.E., Allum, A.G., Langeland, N. (2000) Vancomycin resistance emerging in a clonal outbreak caused by ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 6, 1928.
  • [12]
    Salamon, H., Segal, M.R., Ponce de Leon, A., Small, P.M. (1998) Accommodating error analysis in comparison and clustering of molecular fingerprints. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 4, 159168.
  • [13]
    Morrison, D., Woodford, N., Barrett, S.P., Sisson, P., Cookson, B.D. (1999) DNA banding pattern polymorphism in vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium and criteria for defining strains. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37, 10841091.
  • [14]
    Tenover, F.C., Arbeit, R.D., Goering, R.V., Mickelsen, P.A., Murray, B.E., Persing, D.H., Swaminathan, B. (1995) Interpreting chromosomal DNA restriction patterns produced by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis: criteria for bacterial strain typing. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33, 22332239.
  • [15]
    Struelens, M.J. (1996) Consensus guidelines for appropriate use and evaluation of microbial epidemiologic typing systems. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 2, 211.
  • [16]
    Simpson, E.H. Measurement of diversity Nature 163 1949 688
  • [17]
    Gaston, M.A., Hunter, P.R. (1989) Efficient selection of tests for bacteriological typing schemes. J. Clin. Pathol. 42, 763766.
  • [18]
    Hunter, P.R., Gaston, M.A. (1988) Numerical index of the discriminatory ability of typing systems: an application of Simpson's index of diversity. J. Clin. Microbiol. 26, 24652466.
  • [19]
    Antonishyn, N.A., McDonald, R.R., Chan, E.L., Horsman, G., Woodmansee, C.E., Falk, P.S., Mayhall, C.G. (2000) Evaluation of fluorescence-based amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis for molecular typing in hospital epidemiology: comparison with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for typing strains of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38, 40584065.
  • [20]
    Willems, R.J., Top, J., van den Braak, N., van Belkum, A., Endtz, H., Mevius, D., Stobberingh, E., van den Bogaard, A., van Embden, J.D. (2000) Host specificity of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. J. Infect. Dis. 182, 816823.
  • [21]
    Grundmann, H., Hori, S., Tanner, G. (2001) Determining confidence intervals when measuring genetic diversity and the discriminatory abilities of typing methods for microorganisms. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39, 41904192.
  • [22]
    Facklam, R.R. and Washington, J.A. II. (1991) Streptococci and related catalase-negative gram-positive cocci. In: Manual of Clinical Microbiology (Barlows, A., Hausler, W.J. Jr., Herrmann, K.L., Isenberg, H.D., Shadomy, H.J., Eds.), pp. 238–257. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.
  • [23]
    Dutka-Malen, S., Evers, S., Courvalin, P. (1995) Detection of glycopeptide resistance genotypes and identification to the species level of clinically relevant enterococci by PCR. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33, 2427.
  • [24]
    Bergan, T., Bruun, J.N., Digranes, A., Lingaas, E., Melby, K.K., Sander, J. (1997) Susceptibility testing of bacteria and fungi. Report from ‘the Norwegian Working Group on Antibiotics’. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 103 (Suppl.), 136.
  • [25]
    National Commitee for Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) (2001) Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (M100-S11). NCCLS, Wayne, PA.
  • [26]
    Murray, B.E., Singh, K.V., Heath, J.D., Sharma, B.R., Weinstock, G.M. (1990) Comparison of genomic DNAs of different enterococcal isolates using restriction endonucleases with infrequent recognition sites. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28, 20592063.
  • [27]
    Dahl, K.H., Simonsen, G.S., Olsvik, O., Sundsfjord, A. (1999) Heterogeneity in the vanB gene cluster of genomically diverse clinical strains of vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43, 11051110.
  • [28]
    van den Braak, N., Power, E., Anthony, R., Endtz, H.P., Verbrugh, H.A., van Belkum, A. (2000) Random amplification of polymorphic DNA versus pulsed field gel electrophoresis of Sma I DNA macrorestriction fragments for typing strains of vancomycin-resistant enterococci. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 192, 4552.
  • [29]
    Willems, R.J., Top, J., van den Braak, N., van Belkum, A., Mevius, D.J., Hendriks, G., van Santen-Verheuvel, M., van Embden, J.D. (1999) Molecular diversity and evolutionary relationships of Tn1546-like elements in enterococci from humans and animals. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43, 483491.
  • [30]
    Willems, R.J., Homan, W., Top, J., van Santen-Verheuvel, M., Tribe, D., Manzioros, X., Gaillard, C., Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C.M., Mascini, E.M., van Kregten, E., van Embden, J.D., Bonten, M.J. (2001) Variant esp gene as a marker of a distinct genetic lineage of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium spreading in hospitals. Lancet 357, 853855.
  • [31]
    Jobson, J.D. (1992) Applied Multivariate Data Analysis. Springer-Verlag, New York.
  • [32]
    Bootsma, H.J., van der Heide, H.G., van de Pas, S., Schouls, L.M., Mooi, F.R. (2000) Analysis of Moraxella catarrhalis by DNA typing: evidence for a distinct subpopulation associated with virulence traits. J. Infect. Dis. 181, 13761387.
  • [33]
    Miranda, A.G., Singh, K.V., Murray, B.E. (1991) DNA fingerprinting of Enterococcus faecium by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis may be a useful epidemiologic tool. J. Clin. Microbiol. 29, 27522757.
  • [34]
    Vos, P., Hogers, R., Bleeker, M., Reijans, M., van de Lee, T., Hornes, M., Frijters, A., Pot, J., Peleman, J., Kuiper, M. (1995) AFLP: a new technique for DNA fingerprinting. Nucleic Acids Res. 23, 44074414.
  • [35]
    Werner, G., Willems, R.J., Hildebrandt, B., Klare, I., Witte, W. (2003) Influence of transferable genetic determinants on the outcome of typing methods commonly used for Enterococcus faecium. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41, 14991506.
  • [36]
    D'Agata, E.M., Gerrits, M.M., Tang, Y.W., Samore, M., Kusters, J.G. (2001) Comparison of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and amplified fragment-length polymorphism for epidemiological investigations of common nosocomial pathogens. Infect. Control. Hosp. Epidemiol. 22, 550554.