• Elizabeth P. Kettyle CNM, MSN, MPH,

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    • Elizabeth Kettyle graduated from Yale University's Nurse-Midwifery program and School of Public Health in 2000. She practices full scope nurse-midwifery in the Boston area. The research presented stems from her master's thesis project.

  • Carrie Klima CNM, MS

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    • Carrie Klima is a Clinical Instructor at the University of Illinois at Chicago College of Nursing. She assisted the author in her role as Assistant Professor at the Yale University School of Nursing Nurse-Midwifery Program and is a doctoral candidate at the University of Connecticut School of Nursing. She received a Master of Science degree from the University of Illinois at Chicago Nurse-Midwifery Educational Program in 1986.

CNM, MSN, MPH, 1001 Centre Street, Jamaica Plain, MA 02130.


Teenage pregnancy has reached epidemic proportions in the United States with 1 million pregnancies and more than 500,000 live births occurring each year among women under the age of 20. The safety and efficacy of postcoital administration of oral contraceptives, commonly called “emergency contraception” (EC), have been well documented. However, EC is dramatically underused in the United States. Because low use of EC may be attributable, in part, to both lack of knowledge, as well as misinformation on the part of health care providers, further research in this area is warranted. Because midwives play a significant role in the provision of reproductive health care to adolescents, their attitudes about the use of EC among teens may impact the availability of emergency contraception options to these clients. This article presents results of a survey of certified nurse-midwives with respect to their attitudes, practices, and policies related to EC and provides recommendations specific to this provider population.