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An experimental, community-based, residential program, focused on health promotion, was established in 1990 for incarcerated pregnant women with short-term sentences and histories of drug abuse in a large, midwestern metropolitan area in the United States. Infants resided with mothers after birth. Prenatal care, delivery, postpartum, and family-planning services were initiated and provided by a nurse-midwifery service. Community-based health care, job training, and drug rehabilitation were provided for women during pregnancy through the fourth postpartum month. Program participants' prenatal, delivery, postpartum, and neonatal health outcomes are presented and compared with those of incarcerated women in the same state prison system who experienced usual correctional facility care and support. Program participants represented a group of obstetrically high-risk women. Health outcomes for both groups of incarcerated women and their infants were similar and more optimal than would have been expected given their preexisting health conditions and risk factors.