• Genome evolution;
  • Karyotype;
  • Yeast phylogeny;
  • Ribosomal RNA;
  • Mitochondrial DNA


Forty isolates belonging to the Saccharomyces sensu lato complex were analyzed for one nuclear and two mitochondrial sequences, and for their karyotypes. These data are useful for description and definition of yeast species based on the phylogenetic species concept. The deduced phylogenetic relationships among isolates based on the nuclear and mitochondrial sequences were usually similar, suggesting that horizontal transfer/introgression has not been frequent. The highest degree of polymorphism was observed at the chromosome level. Even isolates which had identical nuclear and mitochondrial sequences often exhibited variation in the number and size of their chromosomes. Apparently, yeast chromosomes have been frequently reshaped and therefore also the position of genes has been dynamic during the evolutionary history of yeasts.