Having the ability to control cell behaviour would be of great advantage in tissue engineering. One method of gaining control over cell adhesion, proliferation, guidance and differentiation is use of topography. Whilst it has be known for some time that cells can be guided by micro-topography, it is only recently becoming clear that cells will respond strongly to nano-scale topography. The fact that cells will take cues from their micro- and nano-environment suggests that the cells are in some way ‘spatially aware’. It is likely that cells probe the shape of their surroundings using filopodia, and that this initial filopodia/topography interaction may be critical to down-stream cell reactions to biomaterials, or indeed, the extracellular matrix. One intriguing question is how small a feature can cells sense? In order to investigate the limits of cell sensing, high-resolution scanning electron microscopy has been used to simultaneously view cell filopodia and 10 nm high nano-islands. Fluorescence microscopy has also been used to look at adhesion formation. The results showed distinct filopodial/nano-island interaction and changes in adhesion morphology.