Cell reproduction and genome multiplication in the proliferative and invasive trophoblast cell populations of mammalian placenta


Corresponding author. zybina@mail.cytspb.rssi.ru


Spatiotemporal “time-table” of ways of cell reproduction (mitosis, restitutional mitosis, endomitosis, endoreduplication) of trophoblast cell populations is described. The populations of mitotically active trophoblast cells (diploid and low-polyploid) are located mostly out of contact with maternal tissues. In rodent placenta they mainly switch from mitotic cycle to polyploidizing (restitutional) mitoses and reach 4c–8c. Thereafter they switch to endoreduplication and reach 16c–64c. Following a series of endoreduplication cycles a part of this cell population sets apart and penetrates deeply into the decidualized endometrium and myometrium, their capabilities for replication being lost progressively. (in rodent—256c−1024c). The invasive trophoblast cells that reach 256c–1024c via endoreduplication simultaneously form a barrier between semiallogenic fetal and maternal tissues. Arrest of mitoses and complete repression of DNA replication after a series of endoreduplication cycles makes hardly probable the renewal of mitotic activity in the deeply invading tertiary giant trophoblast cells, thereby preventing the possibility of their ectopic expanding in the maternal tissues during the normal pregnancy.