Diseases, such as cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia, are related to disruption of the mechanism regulating the balance between cell proliferation and apoptosis in prostatic cells. Since castration and vasectomy might alter that balance, this study evaluates the cell proliferation, apoptosis and height of the secretory epithelium of the ventral-prostate ductal system post-castration and vasectomy. Immunohistochemical (PCNA and Ki67), cytochemical (Fuelgen reaction) and morphometric investigation have been carried out. Cell proliferation indices decreased significantly in both regions of the ventral-prostate ductal system after castration compared to the sham-operated group. The apoptotic index increased significantly after 48 h, declining 7 days post-castration. The cell proliferation indices did not differ after 48 h significantly; however, they increased 7 days post-vasectomy in both regions. The apoptotic index did not differ significantly in either time post-vasectomy. Castration caused an imbalance in favor of apoptosis, whereas vasectomy caused an imbalance in favor of cell proliferation.