The activity and localization of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase; EC 220.127.116.11) in blood leukocytes of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and healthy adults were investigated immunocytochemically. The amount of polymorphonuclear (PMN) and mononuclear (MN) cells with positive FBPase immunocytochemical reaction was 57% and 68%, respectively, in pathological, and 38% and 42%, respectively, in healthy donors. Results of light microscopic investigations were confirmed by measurements of FBPase activity following lysis of PMN and MN cells. The enzyme activity of PMN and MN leukocytes was higher in diabetes mellitus than in healthy adults, by 30% and 127%, respectively. Using immunocytochemistry together with electron microscopy, FBPase was detected not only in the cytoplasm but also in the nucleus of leukocytes of both patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and healthy donors.