• Goral;
  • Cell cycle;
  • Synchronization


The present study was undertaken to examine cell cycle characteristics of endangered Goral (CITES Appendix I) adult skin fibroblasts. Seven experiments were performed, each with a one-way completely randomized design involving three replicates. Least significant difference (LSD) was used to determine variation among treatment groups. Experiment I focused on the effects of cycling, serum-starved, and fully confluent stages of Goral cells. In Experiments II and III, the effects of different antioxidants like β-mercaptoethanol (β-ME, 10 μM), cysteine (2 mM), and glutathione (2 mM) were examined after cells were fully confluent without serum starvation for 24 h and 4 h, respectively. In Experiments IV and V, three protease inhibitors, namely 6-dimethylaminopurine (6-DMAP, 2 mM), cycloheximide (7.5 μg/ml) and cytochalasin B (7.5 μg/ml), were used as in Experiment II. In Experiments VI and VII, the effect of different levels of dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) at 0%, 0.5%, 1.0% and 2.5% were tested by flow cytometry (FACS). In Experiment I, 68.7% of Goral skin fibroblasts reached the G0/G1 stage (2C DNA content) when subjected to the serum-starved medium, which was more than the cycling (64.9%) and fully confluent groups (61.0%) (P > 0.05). Among the chemically treated group, β-ME, cysteine and DMSO showed better results for synchronization of G0 + G1 phases than cycling, serum-starved and fully confluent groups. It can thus be concluded that β-ME, cysteine and DMSO at certain concentrations can synchronize the cell cycle effectively, which could have a positive impact on somatic cell nuclear transfer in the goral.