Although some studies have suggested that troglitazone could retard the progression of glomerulosclerosis, its effects on renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis have not been completely clarified. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of troglitazone on the secretion of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and fibronectin (FN) in human renal proximal tubular epithelial (HK-2) cells induced by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). The mRNA of CTGF and FN were measured by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. CTGF and FN protein were detected by Western blot and ELISA, respectively. Our results revealed that troglitazone could inhibit CTGF and FN expression in a dose-dependent manner in human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells induced by TGF-β1, which may be one of the mechanisms of troglitazone contributing to retard the progression of renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis.